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Phase 2 Study of Pembrolizumab in Combination With Gemcitabine and Cisplatin as Neoadjuvant Therapy

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02690558
Recruitment Status : Active, not recruiting
First Posted : February 24, 2016
Results First Posted : August 10, 2021
Last Update Posted : October 27, 2021
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center

Brief Summary:
The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether adding pembrolizumab (Keytruda) to the combination of gemcitabine and cisplatin will improve shrinkage of the tumor before having a cystectomy, for people with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC).

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Bladder Cancer Drug: pembrolizumab, gemcitabine and cisplatin Phase 2

Detailed Description:

Primary Objective To estimate the proportion of patients with pathological downstaging to <pT2 after neoadjuvant therapy with pembrolizumab in combination with gemcitabine and cisplatin in patients with MIBC

Hypothesis: The rate of pathologic downstaging to <pT2 will improve compared to historical controls

Secondary Objectives To estimate the proportion of patients with pT0 after neoadjuvant therapy with pembrolizumab when administered in combination with gemcitabine and cisplatin in patients with MIBC

Hypothesis: The rate of pathologic downstaging to pT0 will improve compared to historical controls

To estimate event free survival (EFS) Hypothesis: EFS will be improved compared to historical controls

To estimate overall survival (OS) Hypothesis: OS will be improved compared to historical controls

To estimate the proportion of patients who are alive at 3 years (OS at 3 years) Hypothesis: OS at 3 years will be improved compared to historical controls

To characterize the toxicity profile for the combination of pembrolizumab, gemcitabine, and cisplatin Hypothesis: Pembrolizumab, gemcitabine, and cisplatin will be a safe combination with acceptable toxicity rates

Exploratory Objectives To explore the association of biological markers including PD-L1 expression and immune gene expression signatures with pathological downstaging to <pT2, pT0, EFS, and OS

To explore associations between BASE47 "basal," "claudin-low," and "luminal" subtypes of MIBC and pathological downstaging to <pT2, pT0, EFS, and OS

To characterize the change in phenotype of TILs, including delineation of effector and regulatory T cells, before and after neoadjuvant treatment

To define T cell receptor (TCR) and B cell receptor (BCR) repertoire profiles that are associated with pathological downstaging to <pT2, pT0, EFS, and OS

First the participant will receive all 3 study drugs (Pembrolizumab/Keytruda, gemcitabine and cisplatin) on the first day of a 3 week "cycle". The participant will then receive cisplatin and gemcitabine on the 8th day of the cycle.

The participant will receive the study drugs for 4 cycles for a total of 12 weeks.

Participants are followed for 5 years.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 39 participants
Allocation: N/A
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Masking Description: open label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Phase II Single Arm Study of Gemcitabine and Cisplatin Plus Pembrolizumab as Neoadjuvant Therapy Prior to Radical Cystectomy in Patients With Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer
Actual Study Start Date : May 2016
Actual Primary Completion Date : July 6, 2020
Estimated Study Completion Date : January 30, 2026

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Bladder Cancer

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: pembrolizumab, gemcitabine and cisplatin
There is one arm in this study. Subjects will receive Pembrolizumab 200mg IV on day 1 in combination with cisplatin 35mg/m2 and gemcitabine 1000mg/m2 on day 1 and day 8 every 3 weeks for 4 cycles over 12 weeks.
Drug: pembrolizumab, gemcitabine and cisplatin
neoadjuvant administration of pembrolizumab with gemcitabine and cisplatin prior to cystectomy
Other Names:
  • Keytruda
  • MK-3475




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Percentage of Subjects That Reach Pathological Downstaging (Response) at the Time of Cystectomy [ Time Frame: 14 weeks of treatment plus cystectomy within 70 days after treatment ]

    Pathologic (p) anatomic stage for bladder cancer uses the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Tumor/Nodes/Metastasis (TNM) system, which is based on:

    Size of primary tumor (T) and whether it has grown into nearby areas. Spread to regional lymph nodes (N). Spread (metastasis; M) to other organs of the body. Once the T, N, and M categories have been determined, this information is combined into a prognostic group. Higher numbers mean the cancer is more advanced.

    Pathologic staging is based on the operative and pathology report from cystectomy at the local site. A pathologic response or downstaging is defined as a reduction in stage to below pathological tumor stage 2 (<pT2) (pT0-T1N0M0)



Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Percentage of Subjects That Reach Complete Pathologic Response (pT0) at the Time of Cystectomy [ Time Frame: 14 weeks of treatment plus cystectomy within 70 days of treatment ]

    Pathologic (p) anatomic response for bladder cancer uses the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM staging system, which is based on:

    Size of primary tumor (T) and whether it has grown into nearby areas. Spread to regional lymph nodes (N). Spread (metastasis) (M) to other organs of the body. Once the T, N, and M categories have been determined, this information is combined into a prognostic group. Higher numbers mean the cancer is more advanced.

    Pathologic staging is based on the operative and pathology report from cystectomy at the local site.

    Complete pathologic response (pT0) is defined as pT0 N0 M0.


  2. Event Free Survival [ Time Frame: 14 weeks of treatment plus 5 years of followup ]
    defined from D1 of neoadjuvant treatment until progression (in those who progress prior to surgery) or until recurrence (post-surgery) or until death as a result of any cause.

  3. Overall Survival (OS) [ Time Frame: 14 weeks of treatment plus 3 years or until death ]
    OS at 3 years is defined from D1 of treatment until 3 years or death as a result of any cause

  4. Number of Participants With Treatment Related Adverse Events. [ Time Frame: 14 weeks of treatment plus 30 days for toxicity followup ]
    Safety and toxicity will be characterized according to the reported adverse event (AE) profile using NCI Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) v4.0, a descriptive terminology. A grading (severity) scale is provided for each AE term. Grade 1 Mild; asymptomatic or mild symptoms; clinical or diagnostic observations only; intervention not indicated. Grade 2 Moderate; minimal, local or noninvasive intervention indicated; limiting age-appropriate instrumental Activities of Daily Living (ADL). Grade 3 Severe or medically significant but not immediately life-threatening; hospitalization or prolongation of hospitalization indicated; disabling; limiting self care ADL. Grade 4 Life-threatening consequences; urgent intervention indicated. Grade 5 Death related to AE.



Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Be able to give written IRB approved informed consent and be able to follow protocol requirements.
  • Be greater than or equal to 18 years of age on day of signing informed consent.
  • Has a performance status of 0 or 1 on the ECOG Performance Scale
  • Has histologically confirmed urothelial carcinoma of the bladder; those with mixed histology, including a component of urothelial carcinoma, are eligible. Pure small cell carcinoma, pure adenocarcinoma, and pure squamous cell carcinoma are excluded.
  • Has clinical stage T2-T4a N0/X M0 urothelial carcinoma. Clinical T stage is based on the pre-study standard of care transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) sample and imaging studies.
  • Has staging scans with abdominal/pelvic CT or MRI scan and CT scan or x-ray of the chest within 4 weeks prior to treatment initiation
  • Be a medically appropriate candidate for radical cystectomy as determined by an attending urologist and be planning to receive cystectomy.
  • Has had no prior systemic cytotoxic chemotherapy for urothelial carcinoma (prior intravesicular chemotherapies are permitted)
  • Patients must have tumor tissue from transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) available for submission that is sufficient for correlative testing, and agree to submission of a paraffin block or 20 formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) slides of 5-10 microns in thickness. Patients must also agree to submission of tissue from cystectomy.
  • Demonstrate adequate organ function as defined in the table below; all screening labs should be performed within 10 days of treatment initiation.

Hematological Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) ≥1,500 /mcL Platelets ≥100,000 / mcL Hemoglobin ≥9 g/dL or ≥5.6 mmol/L without transfusion or EPO dependency (within 7 days of assessment) Renal Serum creatinine OR Measured or calculated creatinine clearance (CrCL; GFR can also be used in place of creatinine or CrCl) ≤1.5 X upper limit of normal (ULN) OR

≥60 mL/min for subject with creatinine levels > 1.5 X institutional ULN (Creatinine clearance should be calculated per CKD-EPI equation.) Hepatic Serum total bilirubin ≤ 1.5 X ULN (≤ 3 X ULN if Gilbert's Syndrome) OR Direct bilirubin ≤ ULN for subjects with total bilirubin levels > 1.5 ULN AST (SGOT) and ALT (SGPT) ≤ 2.5 X ULN Coagulation International Normalized Ratio (INR) or Prothrombin Time (PT)

Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT) ≤1.5 X ULN unless subject is receiving anticoagulant therapy. If subject receiving anticoagulants, PT or PTT should be within therapeutic range of intended use of anticoagulants

  • Female subjects of childbearing potential should have a negative urine or serum pregnancy within 72 hours prior to receiving the first dose of pembrolizumab.
  • Female subjects of childbearing potential should be willing to use 2 methods of birth control or be surgically sterile, or abstain from heterosexual activity for the course of the study through 120 days after the last dose of study medication Subjects of childbearing potential are those who have not been surgically sterilized or have not been free from menses for > 1 year. The two birth control methods can be composed of: two barrier methods or a barrier method plus a hormonal method to prevent pregnancy. Subjects should start using birth control from the screening visit and continue throughout the study period up to 120 days after the last dose of study therapy.

The following are considered adequate barrier methods of contraception: diaphragm, condom (by the partner), copper intrauterine device, sponge, or spermicide. Appropriate hormonal contraceptives will include any registered and marketed contraceptive agent that contains an estrogen and/or a progestational agent (including oral, subcutaneous, intrauterine, or intramuscular agents).

  • Male subjects should agree to use an adequate method of contraception starting with the first dose of study therapy through 120 days after the last dose of study therapy.
  • Life expectancy greater than 3 months
  • Consents to whole blood collection prior to initiating therapy and at cystectomy for support of correlative research studies

Exclusion Criteria:

The subject must be excluded from participating in the trial if the subject meets any of the following:

  • Is currently participating in or has participated in a study of an investigational agent or using an investigational device within 4 weeks of the first dose of pembrolizumab.
  • Has a diagnosis of immunodeficiency or is receiving systemic steroid therapy or any other form of immunosuppressive therapy within 7 days prior to the first dose of trial treatment. NOTE: see exception to use of systemic steroid as prophylactic anti-emetic prior to cisplatin in section 4.2.2. Inhaled and topical steroids are allowed.
  • Has a known history of active TB (Bacillus Tuberculosis)
  • Hypersensitivity to pembrolizumab or any of its excipients.
  • Has had a prior monoclonal antibody within 4 weeks prior to study Day 1 or who has not recovered (i.e., ≤ Grade 1 or at baseline) from adverse events due to agents administered more than 4 weeks earlier.
  • Has had prior chemotherapy, targeted small molecule therapy, or radiation therapy within 2 weeks prior to study Day 1 or who has not recovered (i.e., ≤ Grade 1 or at baseline) from adverse events due to a previously administered agent.

    • Note: If subject received major surgery, they must have recovered adequately from the toxicity and/or complications from the intervention prior to starting therapy.

  • Has a known additional malignancy that is progressing or requires active treatment. Exceptions include basal cell carcinoma of the skin, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, or in situ cervical cancer that has undergone potentially curative therapy.
  • Has active autoimmune disease that has required systemic treatment in the past 2 years (i.e. with use of disease modifying agents, corticosteroids or immunosuppressive drugs). Replacement therapy (eg., thyroxine, insulin, or physiologic corticosteroid replacement therapy for adrenal or pituitary insufficiency, etc.) is not considered a form of systemic treatment.
  • Has evidence of interstitial lung disease or active, non-infectious pneumonitis.
  • Has an active infection requiring systemic therapy
  • Has a history or current evidence of any condition, therapy, or laboratory abnormality that might confound the results of the trial, interfere with the subject's participation for the full duration of the trial, or is not in the best interest of the subject to participate, in the opinion of the treating investigator.
  • Has known psychiatric or substance abuse disorders that would interfere with cooperation with the requirements of the trial
  • Is pregnant or breastfeeding, or expecting to conceive or father children within the projected duration of the trial, starting with the pre-screening or screening visit through 120 days after the last dose of trial treatment.
  • Has received prior therapy with an anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1, anti-PD-L2, anti-CD137, or anti-Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) antibody (including ipilimumab or any other antibody or drug specifically targeting T-cell co-stimulation or checkpoint pathways)
  • Has received prior radiation therapy to the bladder for the purpose of treating urothelial carcinoma
  • Has a known history of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) (HIV 1/2 antibodies)
  • Has known active Hepatitis B (e.g., HBsAg reactive) or Hepatitis C (e.g., HCV RNA [qualitative] is detected).
  • Has clinically relevant hearing impairment > Grade 2
  • Has received a live vaccine within 30 days prior to the first dose of trial treatment

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02690558


Locations
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United States, North Carolina
North Carolina Cancer Hospital (UNC)
Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States, 27599
Duke University Medical Center
Durham, North Carolina, United States, 27710
Sponsors and Collaborators
UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center
Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: Matthew I Milowsky, MD UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center
  Study Documents (Full-Text)

Documents provided by UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center:
Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
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Responsible Party: UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02690558    
Other Study ID Numbers: LCCC 1520
First Posted: February 24, 2016    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: August 10, 2021
Last Update Posted: October 27, 2021
Last Verified: October 2021
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No
Keywords provided by UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center:
muscle-invasive
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
Urologic Neoplasms
Urogenital Neoplasms
Neoplasms by Site
Neoplasms
Urinary Bladder Diseases
Urologic Diseases
Gemcitabine
Pembrolizumab
Antineoplastic Agents
Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic
Antimetabolites
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Antiviral Agents
Anti-Infective Agents
Enzyme Inhibitors
Immunosuppressive Agents
Immunologic Factors
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological