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Pain Program for Active Coping & Training (PPACT)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT02113592
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : April 14, 2014
Results First Posted : May 18, 2022
Last Update Posted : May 18, 2022
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)
Duke University
Oregon Health and Science University
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Kaiser Permanente

Brief Summary:
The overall aim of this study is to adopt an integrative rehabilitation approach for helping patients adopt self-management skills for managing chronic pain, limiting use of opioid medications, and identifying exacerbating factors amenable to treatment (e.g., depression, sleep problems) that is feasible and sustainable within the primary care setting.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Chronic Non-malignant Pain Behavioral: Interdisciplinary pain program Not Applicable

Detailed Description:

Pain is a common and very costly public health problem. Common chronic pain conditions are expensive and pervasive, affecting at least 116 million American adults at an annual cost of $560 billion in direct medical treatment costs and lost productivity, and disproportionally affect vulnerable populations. Pain is the primary reason patients seek medical care and, as the first point of contact, primary care providers (PCPs) deliver the majority of that care. Unfortunately, PCPs face many challenges in managing these patients' care and often have little specific training in pain medicine. Yet with proper system support, PCPs are in the best position to coordinate pain management longitudinally. While pharmacotherapy is the predominant treatment approach for many PCPs, this limits the patient's role to taking medication, and he or she can become a passive recipient of care-leading to poor outcomes, potential overmedication, and possible disillusionment with the medical system. Further, increases in opiate prescribing for pain treatment-amidst increasing awareness of adverse outcomes, including addiction-and limited efficacy suggest the importance of broader treatment approaches that focus on patients' improvement of functioning. Although opiates may reduce pain symptoms while prescribed, patients are unlikely to experience significant and sustained improvements without the use of other nonpharmacologic pain management approaches. Medical management of patients with persistent pain and complex problems is often fragmented, which leads patients to seek a wide variety of primary and specialty care services in an effort to manage their pain and related conditions. Such fragmented care leads to poorer outcomes and significantly increases health care costs as patients often receive unneeded diagnostic and medical procedures. While research has identified evidence-based multidisciplinary behavioral treatment approaches that are effective for such patients and can even prevent the disability associated with persistent pain when offered earlier in the course of care, these interventions are rarely available in everyday practice settings and will require data from pragmatic clinical trials to change the care paradigm.

To address these issues, we are conducting a large-scale, mixed-methods, cluster-randomized pragmatic clinical trial throughout three regions of Kaiser Permanente - Northwest, Georgia, and Hawaii. This trial will evaluate the integration of multidisciplinary services within the primary care environment as compared to usual care in these settings. This project embeds an intervention into everyday clinical practice flow utilizing assessment measures and intervention staff directly from the clinical care system rather than utilizing a research-developed and administered structure. The intervention is an integrated, interdisciplinary program that guides all pain-related care for intervention patients. This study compares this primary care-based intervention to usual care using systematic, clinic-based assessments. The trial will include up to 1,000 patients and 500 primary care providers (half of each receiving active treatment) with intervention care being delivered by behavioral specialists, nurses, physical therapists, pharmacists, and other affiliated staff. Patients include those selected by their primary care providers who have non-malignant chronic pain (pain persisting for ≥ 3 months) and who are on long-term opiate therapy for the treatment of their condition. This intervention brings together elements often available in health plans but organized in a less integrated fashion, and it will ensure flexibility in implementation to best fit individual clinic environments and the needs of chronic pain patients on long-term opiate therapy.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 850 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Single (Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Health Services Research
Official Title: Collaborative Care for Chronic Pain in Primary Care
Actual Study Start Date : April 10, 2014
Actual Primary Completion Date : February 2018
Actual Study Completion Date : February 2018

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Interdisciplinary pain program
Interdisciplinary pain program, which includes behavioral health, nurse case management, physical therapy, and pharmacy embedded in primary care.
Behavioral: Interdisciplinary pain program
Interdisciplinary pain program, which includes behavioral health, nurse case management, physical therapy, and pharmacy embedded in primary care.

No Intervention: Treatment as usual
Patients in this arm will receive care as usual and utilize services as they currently exist in the health plan system.

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Pain Impact Assessed Using the 4-Item Version of Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form ("PEGS") [ Time Frame: Collected every 3 months for 1 year ]
    Reliable and valid tool that measures patients' pain intensity and functional interference. The primary outcome of pain impact is assessed with the 4-item PEGS scale, a composite of pain intensity, and interference with enjoyment of life, general activity, and sleep (range, 0-10, higher score = worse pain impact).

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Pain-related Disability [ Time Frame: Collected every 3 months for 1 year ]
    Pain-related disability will be assessed using the 24-item Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (range, 0-1, higher score = worse function)

  2. Average Daily Dose of Opioids [ Time Frame: Collected every 3 months for 1 year ]
    Average daily dose of opioids per 3-month quarter measured in morphine milligram equivalents (MME)

  3. Patient Satisfaction [ Time Frame: Collected at baseline and 6 months (post-treatment) ]

    Patient satisfaction with health care services will be assessed using two distinct items:

    • [Satisfaction with primary care services]: In the past 3 months, how satisfied have you been with your primary care services? (1, Very dissatisfied; 2, Mildly dissatisfied; 3, Indifferent; 4, Mostly satisfied; 5, Very satisfied)
    • [Satisfaction with pain services]: In the past 3 months, how satisfied have you been with the pain services you have received? (1, Very dissatisfied; 2, Mildly dissatisfied; 3, Indifferent; 4, Mostly satisfied; 5, Very satisfied)

    Each item is scored individually; (range=1-5, higher score = greater satisfaction)

  4. Health Care Costs [ Time Frame: Collected for 1 year post-randomization ]

    Costs were measured based on patient utilization of health care services and all prescription/medication costs. The costs of health care encounters during the 1-year follow-up were estimated using the standardized relative resource cost algorithm (SRRCA).

    Pain-related health care costs were based on the pain-related health care encounters identified using diagnostic and procedure coding.

  5. Count of Health Care Encounters by Type (Health Care Utilization) [ Time Frame: Collected for 1 year post-randomization ]

    Total Ambulatory Encounters includes encounters in the following health care service categories: Primary care; Physical therapy; Pain clinic; Other specialty medical care; Mental health; Complementary and alternative medicine; ED, urgent care, and observation beds; Hospital ambulatory visits; Same day surgeries; and Home health.

    Total Pain-Related Ambulatory Encounters are a subset of Total Ambulatory Encounters and were identified using CPT, HCPCS, and ICD-9-PCS or ICD-10-PCS codes

  6. Inpatient Hospital Days (Health Care Utilization) [ Time Frame: Collected for 1 year post-randomization ]
    Inpatient hospital days is the average number of days that patients stayed in hospital (total number of days spent by inpatients during the 1 year post-randomization divided by the total number of inpatient admissions)

  7. Total Pharmacy Dispenses (Health Care Utilization) [ Time Frame: Collected for 1 year post-randomization ]
    Total Pharmacy Dispenses is a count of the unique medication prescriptions dispensed.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Patient inclusion criteria are:

  1. Adult (18 years of age or older) Kaiser Permanente (KP) health plan members from the KP Northwest, KP Georgia, and KP Hawaii regions who receive their primary care services from participating primary care providers
  2. Kaiser Permanente health plan membership of at least 180 days duration
  3. Long term opioid use defined by: 90+ day supply of short acting opioid spanning at least 120 days or 2 or more long acting opioid dispense in the past 180 days
  4. Pain diagnosis within the past year (based on ICD-9 or ICD-10 diagnostic codes)
  5. English speaking

Patient exclusion criteria are:

  1. Currently enrolled in intensive addiction medicine services or evidence of active substance dependence
  2. Cognitive impairment severe enough to preclude patient's participation in a behavioral/lifestyle change program
  3. Current malignant cancer diagnosis
  4. Having received hospice or other end-of-life palliative care within past year

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT02113592

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United States, Georgia
Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research
Atlanta, Georgia, United States, 30305
United States, Hawaii
Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research
Honolulu, Hawaii, United States, 96817
United States, Oregon
Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research
Portland, Oregon, United States, 97227
Sponsors and Collaborators
Kaiser Permanente
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)
Duke University
Oregon Health and Science University
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Principal Investigator: Lynn DeBar, PhD, MPH Kaiser Permanente
  Study Documents (Full-Text)

Documents provided by Kaiser Permanente:
Publications of Results:
Publications automatically indexed to this study by Identifier (NCT Number):
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Responsible Party: Kaiser Permanente Identifier: NCT02113592    
Other Study ID Numbers: Pro00004169
UH3NS088731 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
First Posted: April 14, 2014    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: May 18, 2022
Last Update Posted: May 18, 2022
Last Verified: April 2022
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No
Keywords provided by Kaiser Permanente:
Pain management
Opioid use
Collaborative care
Primary care