Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of the Etonogestrel Contraceptive Implant When Co-administered With Efavirenz

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT01980342
Recruitment Status : Terminated (loss of funding)
First Posted : November 8, 2013
Results First Posted : May 10, 2018
Last Update Posted : May 10, 2018
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
The Campbell Foundation
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Johns Hopkins University

Brief Summary:
This study evaluates whether there is an interaction between etonogestrel, the progestin hormone released by the contraceptive implant Nexplanon, and efavirenz, a common medication used to treat HIV. The endpoints measured in this study will help determine if such an interaction leads to decreased contraceptive efficacy of the contraceptive implant.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Drug Interaction Drug: Efavirenz Phase 4

Detailed Description:
Women now make up nearly half of the world's HIV-infected population, and many of these women with HIV are of reproductive age. There is a growing need to provide effective contraception for those women who want or need to be protected against pregnancy. However, there is concern for decreased contraceptive efficacy in women on antiretroviral therapy who rely on hormonal contraception due to drug-drug interactions. Of particular concern is a possible interaction with etonogestrel, the active hormone in a long-acting reversible contraceptive implant. We propose a pilot study to evaluate the effect of efavirenz (EFV), a commonly used non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, on the pharmacokinetics of the etonogestrel implant. We will recruit 18 healthy women who have had the implant in place for 12 to 24 months. They will be asked to take a two-week course of efavirenz. During these two weeks and for four additional weeks, we will monitor semi-weekly etonogestrel concentrations, and serum, ultrasound, and cervical mucus markers of ovulation. We will also assess efavirenz concentration at baseline and at the end of the two-week treatment course. We will derive pharmacokinetic parameters and compare concentrations across time points. Results will help to inform the design of larger studies, and of similar studies with different antiretroviral medications. We hypothesize that taking efavirenz while using the etonogestrel contraceptive implant will not result in an increased incidence of ovulation.

Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 1 participants
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Other
Official Title: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of the Etonogestrel Contraceptive Implant When Co-administered With Efavirenz
Study Start Date : October 2014
Actual Primary Completion Date : April 4, 2018
Actual Study Completion Date : April 4, 2018

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Drug Reactions

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Efavirenz
Healthy, reproductive-age women using the etonogestrel contraceptive implant who will take a two-week course of efavirenz 400 mg orally each night.
Drug: Efavirenz
Healthy women who are using Nexplanon will be asked to take a 2-week course of reduced-dose efavirenz (400 mg daily).
Other Name: Sustiva

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Serum Concentration of Etonogestrel Before and After Two Weeks of Efavirenz [ Time Frame: 6 weeks ]
    We will draw a baseline serum etonogestrel immediately prior to a participant starting the 2-week course of efavirenz. Serial blood samples will subsequently be drawn over the next 6 weeks to assess for changes in serum etonogestrel concentration. We will be looking to see if the serum etonogestrel concentration decreases below the level necessary for reliable ovulation suppression.

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Serum Efavirenz Concentrations at the Start and End of the 2-week Dosing Period [ Time Frame: 2 weeks ]
    We will assess serum efavirenz concentrations at the beginning and end of the 2-week dosing period. By comparing these concentrations to historical controls, we will determine whether taking efavirenz while using the etonogestrel implant alters the serum concentration of efavirenz.

  2. Serum Hormone Markers of Ovulation [ Time Frame: 6 weeks ]
    We will test serial blood samples for levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol, and progesterone to determine whether the etonogestrel implant is able to suppress ovulation during and after a course of efavirenz.

  3. Transvaginal Ultrasound to Assess for Ovarian Follicular Development [ Time Frame: 6 weeks ]
    For the entire 6 week period of the study, participants will undergo twice-weekly transvaginal ultrasound to assess for the development of ovarian follicles. This direct assessment of follicular development will be combined with serum hormone concentrations to determine if efavirenz increases the incidence of ovulation in women using the etonogestrel implant for contraception.

  4. Cervical Mucus Quality [ Time Frame: 6 weeks ]
    Cervical mucus quality will be assessed twice weekly throughout the study period. The etonogestrel implant exerts a secondary contraceptive effect by causing cervical mucus to become thick and sticky, and therefore less permissive to the movement of sperm through the female genital tract. We will assess whether efavirenz causes a change in cervical mucus quality that would make sperm penetration more likely, and therefore indicate a reduction in the implant's contraceptive effect.

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 40 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Female
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Healthy women aged 18-40 years who have a Nexplanon®/Implanon® in place that is palpable on exam, had the device placed between 12 and 24 months prior to enrollment, and can provide documentation of when the implant was placed
  • Able to speak and read English
  • Documented HIV-negative status within 30 days of enrollment
  • BMI between 18.5 and 24.9 kg/m2
  • Willingness to take a two-week course of efavirenz
  • Willingness to comply with study visit schedule (as described below), including blood sampling, transvaginal ultrasounds, and cervical mucus assessment
  • Negative urine human chorionic gonadotropin pregnancy test at study entry
  • Normal laboratory values within 30 days of study entry, as specified below:

    • White blood cell count ≥ 4500 and ≤ 11000 cells/mm3
    • Platelet count ≥ 100,000 platelets/mm3
    • Hemoglobin ≥ 8.0 g/dL
    • International normalized ratio (INR) ≤ 1.8
    • Aspartate transaminase (SGOT) and alanine aminotransferase (SGPT) ≤ 3 times the upper limit of normal (ULN) (upper limit of normal)
    • Creatinine ≤ 1.5 x ULN
    • Serum amylase ≤ 1.5 x ULN
    • Total bilirubin ≤ 2.0 x ULN
  • Agree to use an additional reliable method of contraception while participating in the study. Acceptable methods include:

    • Abstinence
    • Condoms (male or female) with or without spermicide
    • Pre-existing sterilization of subject or her male partner
  • Willingness to abstain from alcohol consumption during the study period
  • Willingness to abstain from any grapefruit product or supplement for the duration of the study.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Breastfeeding
  • Hypersensitivity to efavirenz
  • History of seizure disorder
  • Initiated, discontinued, or changed doses of drugs that are cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 3A4 (CYP3A4) inducers or inhibitors within 30 days of study entry.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT01980342

United States, Maryland
Johns Hopkins University Bayview Medical Center
Baltimore, Maryland, United States, 21224
Sponsors and Collaborators
Johns Hopkins University
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
The Campbell Foundation
  Study Documents (Full-Text)

Documents provided by Johns Hopkins University:

Responsible Party: Johns Hopkins University Identifier: NCT01980342     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: NA_00087585
First Posted: November 8, 2013    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: May 10, 2018
Last Update Posted: May 10, 2018
Last Verified: May 2018
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No

Keywords provided by Johns Hopkins University:
Long acting reversible contraception

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Contraceptive Agents
Reproductive Control Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors
Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Anti-Retroviral Agents
Antiviral Agents
Anti-Infective Agents
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9 Inhibitors
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19 Inhibitors
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2B6 Inducers
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inducers
Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inducers
Contraceptive Agents, Female