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Maternal Antiviral Prophylaxis to Prevent Perinatal Transmission of Hepatitis B Virus in Thailand (iTAP)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT01745822
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : December 10, 2012
Last Update Posted : June 14, 2019
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD)
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Gilead Sciences
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
GONZAGUE JOURDAIN, Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement

Brief Summary:

Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection is complicated by cirrhosis and liver cancer. In Thailand, 7% of adults are chronically infected by Hepatitis B virus (HBV). The risk of perinatal transmission of HBV is about 12% when a mother has a high HBV load in her plasma, even if her infant receive specific immunoglobulin and vaccine.

The hypothesis of this study is that a potent antiviral, tenofovir, can decrease HBV load in HBV infected pregnant women and therefore reduce the risk of perinatal transmission/ Pregnant women participating in this study will receive tenofovir or placebo during the last trimester of pregnancy and two months postpartum. The risk of perinatal transmission will be compared between the two groups.

The results of the study will help define policy to manage HBV infected pregnant women to prevent perinatal transmission.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Hepatitis B Chronic Infection Pregnancy Drug: tenofovir disoproxil fumarate Drug: placebo Phase 3

Detailed Description:

This is a phase III, placebo controlled, double blind, randomized clinical trial to assess the efficacy and safety of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) given from 28 weeks' gestation until 2 months postpartum to pregnant women with Hepatitis B (HB) virus (HBV) chronic infection and positive for HB s and e antigen to prevent perinatal transmission of HBV to their infants. All infants will receive HBV passive (HB specific immunoglobulin) and active (vaccine) immunization.

Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection is complicated by cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the 10th leading cause of death worldwide.

In 2011, about 7% of adults in Thailand were HBsAg carriers. Infant hepatitis B (HB) immunization and HB immune globulin (HBIg) administered at birth effectively prevent most mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HBV. However, about 12% of mothers with high load of HBV transmit the virus to their infants, despite active and passive immunization.

Studies have suggested that antiviral treatment at the end of pregnancy and during early postpartum can reduce the risk of transmission to the child. A potential limitation to this approach is the risk of hepatic disease exacerbation following discontinuation of antiviral treatment postpartum, and this risk has not been properly evaluated. No randomized clinical trials have adequately demonstrated the efficacy and safety of maternal antiviral treatment the prevention of mother to child transmission of HBV. This is the reason why this approach is not currently recommended by the Associations for the Study of Liver Diseases.

We hypothesize that a potent antiviral, tenofovir, can decrease HBV viral load in HBV infected pregnant women and therefore reduce the risk of perinatal transmission, before infants are definitely protected by passive-active immunization. We also hypothesize that only moderate exacerbations of liver disease will be observed after discontinuation of a short antiviral course (5 months). While the primary objective of the study is to assess the efficacy of tenofovir versus placebo for the prevention of perinatal transmission, an important secondary objective is the assessment of the risk of postpartum hepatic disease exacerbation.

Within 2 years, 328 women and their infants will be enrolled from public hospitals in Thailand and randomized to receive either tenofovir disoproxil fumarate or matching placebo from 28 weeks of pregnancy until 2 months postpartum. Mothers and infants will be followed until one year postpartum.

The primary endpoint will be the detection of HBsAg and HBV DNA in infants at six months of life. An interim analysis will be conducted when half of the outcomes are available.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 328 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: Phase 3, Randomized Clinical Trial to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of Tenofovir in Hepatitis B Virus Infected, s and e Antigen Positive, Pregnant Women to Prevent Perinatal Transmission Despite Infant Passive-active HBV Immunization.
Study Start Date : January 2013
Actual Primary Completion Date : December 2016
Actual Study Completion Date : October 2018

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate
tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, 300 mg tablets
Drug: tenofovir disoproxil fumarate
administration: tablet 300 mg, once a day, from enrollment at 28 weeks' gestation until 2 months postpartum
Other Names:
  • Viread
  • TDF
  • tenofovir

Placebo Comparator: Placebo
matching placebo (of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate)
Drug: placebo
administration: one tablet, once a day, from enrollment at 28 weeks' gestation until 2 months postpartum

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Infant's Hepatitis B infection status at 6 months of age [ Time Frame: 6 months of age ]
    Infection is defined as HBsAg positive confirmed by HBV DNA

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Adverse events [ Time Frame: from enrollment (28 weeks' gestation) to 12 months postpartum ]
    Occurrence of maternal and infant adverse events, including maternal and infants Serious Adverse Events (as defined by the International Conference on Harmonization Good Clinical Practice) and NIH Division of AIDS grade 3/4 signs and symptoms, regardless of their relatedness to the study treatment.

  2. Flares after study treatment interruption [ Time Frame: Following planned discontinuation of study treatment up to 12 months postpartum ]
    Flare, or acute exacerbation of hepatitis B, after study treatment interruption is defined as an Alanine Aminotransferase plasma level above 300 IU/mL

  3. Infant's HBV infection status [ Time Frame: at or after 6 months through 12 months of age ]
    Infants will be considered HBV infected if at any time point at or after 6 months through 12 months of age, a sample tests positive for HBsAg and HBV DNA

  4. Weight, height and head circumference for age [ Time Frame: at 6 months and 12 months of age ]
    Weight, length/height and head circumference WHO Z scores

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Female
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Pregnancy
  • At least 18 years of age
  • Negative Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) serology
  • Positive HBsAg and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) tests
  • Gestational age of 28 weeks (+ or - 10 days) as determined by obstetrician
  • Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT)≤30 U/L, confirmed ≤60 U/L on a subsequent blood draw
  • Agreeing to bring their infants at the planned study visits at one study site until one year after delivery and to inform the site investigators if they plan to move to another place and not be able to return to the clinic.
  • Understanding the need for adequate infant immunization and agreeing to the blood draws from their infants and the need for close follow up to manage possible exacerbation of hepatitis.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • History of tenofovir treatment at any time, or any other anti-HBV treatment during the current pregnancy
  • Creatinine clearance <50 ml/min, calculated using the Cockcroft-Gault formula
  • Dipstick proteinuria>1+ (>30 mg/dL) or normoglycemic glucosuria confirmed on two separate occasions
  • Positive serology for Hepatitis C infection less than 12 months prior to enrollment
  • Evidence of pre-existing fetal anomalies incompatible with life
  • Any concomitant condition or treatment that, in the view of the clinical site investigator, would contraindicate participation or satisfactory follow up in the study.
  • Concurrent participation in any other clinical trial without written agreement of the two study teams

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT01745822

Show Show 17 study locations
Sponsors and Collaborators
Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD)
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Gilead Sciences
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Principal Investigator: Gonzague Jourdain, MD, PhD Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement
Publications of Results:
Jourdain G, Ngo-Giang-Huong N, Harrison L, Decker L, Tierney C, Cressey TR, Achalapong J, Siberry GK, Nelson NP, and Chotivanich N. TDF to prevent perinatal hepatitis B virus transmission: a randomized trial (iTAP). Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) Abstract 584LB; 2017 February 13; Seattle, WA, USA.
Jourdain G, Harrison LJ, Ngo-Giang-Huong N, Cressey TR, Decker L, Tierney C, Achalapong J, Kanjanavikai P, Luvira A, Srirompotong U, Murphy TV, Nelson N, Siberry GK, Pol S, for the iTAP Study Group. iTAP trial: maternal and infant efficacy and safety results 12 months after delivery. CROI, 4-7 March 2018, Boston, USA. #1316, Oral Presentation O-11
Salvadori N, Fan B, Teeyasoontranon W, Ngo-Giang-Huong N, Phanomcheong S, Luvira A, Puangsombat A, Suwannarat A, Srirompotong U, Putiyanun C, Kourtis A, Bulterys M, Siberry GK, Jourdain G. TDF prophylaxis for PMTCT of HBV: effect on maternal and infant bone mineral density. CROI, 4-7 March 2018, Boston, USA. #1174. Poster and Themed Discussion TD-09

Other Publications:
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Responsible Party: GONZAGUE JOURDAIN, Chargé de recherches, Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement Identifier: NCT01745822    
Other Study ID Numbers: U01HD071889 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
U01HD071889 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
First Posted: December 10, 2012    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: June 14, 2019
Last Verified: June 2019
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: Undecided
Plan Description: Pending completion of analysis planned in the protocol
Keywords provided by GONZAGUE JOURDAIN, Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement:
Hepatitis B
Hepatitis B sAg
Hepatitis B eAg
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Hepatitis A
Hepatitis B
Hepatitis B, Chronic
Liver Diseases
Digestive System Diseases
Hepatitis, Viral, Human
Virus Diseases
Enterovirus Infections
Picornaviridae Infections
RNA Virus Infections
Hepadnaviridae Infections
DNA Virus Infections
Hepatitis, Chronic
Antiviral Agents
Anti-Infective Agents
Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors
Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Anti-Retroviral Agents
Anti-HIV Agents