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NAS Treatment - Opiate Versus Non-Opiate (NAS)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT01734551
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : November 27, 2012
Results First Posted : September 12, 2017
Last Update Posted : September 12, 2017
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Henrietta Bada, University of Kentucky

Brief Summary:
The purpose of this study is to compare two different medicines to treat babies with opiate withdrawal. The treatment medicines are morphine, which is an opiate, and clonidine, a non-opiate. Morphine is a narcotic medicine, with is included in most pain killers. Clonidine is another drug, but is different from morphine. It is also used for babies, and even adults for withdrawal symptoms. Both drugs are effective, but the purpose of this study is to see if one may be better than the other.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Drug: Morphine Drug: Clonidine Phase 4

Detailed Description:
Withdrawal from drugs, called Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS), is a group of symptoms that occurs to babies whose mother took or used drugs (prescription, addicting, illegal, pain pills, or drugs for addiction treatment) during pregnancy. Medicines the mother takes while pregnant, the baby also takes. Babies may experience withdrawal after delivery, and may need treatment. There are different ways to treat babies with withdrawal - about 50% of doctors use morphine, an opiate, to treat these babies, the rest uses other drugs, like clonidine and phenobarbitol.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 31 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Pharmacological Treatment of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome: Opiate Versus Non-Opiate
Study Start Date : September 2011
Actual Primary Completion Date : December 2014
Actual Study Completion Date : December 2014

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

Arm Intervention/treatment
Active Comparator: Morphine
Initial dose is 0.4mg/kg/day, divided every 3-4 hours, given PO with feeds. Drug is required until symptoms of withdrawal no longer cause the infant feeding, behavior, or elimination problems, up to 3 months.
Drug: Morphine

Start at 0.4mg/kg/day (divided every 3-4 hours, given with feeds. Dose may be increased 25% of initial dose until symptoms are stable, up to 1 mg/kg/day.

Once stable for 72 hrs, weaning may begin (decrease 10% of max dose, every other day). When total dose is <0.1mg/kg/day, may discontinue.

Other Name: Morphine sulfate

Active Comparator: Clonidine
Dose is started at 5 mcg/kg/day, given PO with feeds, divided every 3-4 hours. Drug is required until symptoms of withdrawal no longer cause the infant feeding, behavior, or elimination problems, up to 3 months.
Drug: Clonidine
Initial dose is 5 mcg/kg/day (divided every 3-4 hrs, given with feeds). Will increase 25% of initial dose every 12-24 hrs until stable, up to 12 mcg/kg/day. Dose is unchanged for 72 hours once stable, then may decrease by 10% every other day. If re-escalation is required, the previous dose may be used with 72 hours for stabilizing.
Other Name: clonidine hydrochloride

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Finnegan Neonatal Abstinence Scoring System [ Time Frame: 14 days ]
    Mean of total Finnegan Scores obtained every 3 hours on days 2, 7, and 14 following start of treatment; A score is a number representing the total score or sum from 21 items or symptoms or manifestations of opiate withdrawal in newborn infants. The total score ranges from 0 to 43. Reference: 1. Finnegan LP, Connaughton JF, Jr., Kron RE, et al. Neonatal abstinence syndrome: assessment and management. Addict Dis 1975;2(1-2):141-58. Although normal newborn may manifest mild symptoms that will give scores in the range of 0 to 7. A score of 8 consecutively obtained times 3 indicate that infant will benefit from treatment, in this study morphine or clonidine. A decrease in scores especially to less than 8 is suggestive of a good response to treatment.

  2. Duration of Treatment [ Time Frame: 120 days ]
    Total number days of treatment

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Neurobehavioral Performance Summary Scores From the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) [ Time Frame: 5-10 days after treatment starts ]
    The summary scores from the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) give a measure of infant neurobehavior in the following areas (score range): habituation (1-9), regulation (2.20-7.50), attention (1.29 -8.4), Handling (0 - 1), quality of movement (1.20 - 6.20), Non-optimal reflexes (0-12), Asymmetric reflexes (0-7), arousal (2.43 - 6.67), hypertonicity (0- 8), hypotonicity (0 - 5.0), excitability (0-11), lethargy (0 - 11.0). and stress/abstinence (0. - 0.57). A higher score for each item means a higher level of the construct. For example, a higher score for hypertonicity means the infant is more hypertonic and higher score on hypotonicity means the infant is more hypotonic. No cut-off score published for normal or abnormal behavioral performance. Reference: Lester BM et al. Summary Statistics of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale Scores From the Maternal Lifestyle Study: A Quasinormative Sample, in Pediatrics 2004; 113,668.

  2. Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development Third Edition [ Time Frame: 1 year of life ]
    Scores obtained Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development Third Edition in the developmental domains of motor, cognitive, and language. This tool for measures of motor, cognitive and language development is a series of standardized measurements and for each domain, the standardized scores have a mean of 100 and standard deviation of 15. Scores below 1 standard deviation (= or less than 84) is considered below normal. Scores above 1 standard deviation (over 115) represent higher than normal functioning in each domain The score for each domain (motor, cognitive, and language functioning) represents the full-scale score

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   up to 7 Days   (Child)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU)- Gestational age (GA) >or= 35 wks
  • Known prenatal opiate exposure (maternal history, positive opiate screen, positive neonatal urine or meconium screen)
  • Symptomatic with Finnegan Neonatal Abstinence Scores meeting NICU protocol for treatment

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Seizures
  • Major congenital malformations
  • Unlikely to survive
  • Parents not able to understand English

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT01734551

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United States, Kentucky
University of Kentucky Medical Center
Lexington, Kentucky, United States, 40536
Sponsors and Collaborators
Henrietta Bada
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Principal Investigator: Henrietta S Bada, MD University of Kentucky

Publications automatically indexed to this study by Identifier (NCT Number):
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Responsible Party: Henrietta Bada, PI, University of Kentucky Identifier: NCT01734551     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 11-0534
First Posted: November 27, 2012    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: September 12, 2017
Last Update Posted: September 12, 2017
Last Verified: August 2017
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No
Keywords provided by Henrietta Bada, University of Kentucky:
Prenatal opiate exposure
neonatal withdrawal
Pharmacologic treatment
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome
Pathologic Processes
Infant, Newborn, Diseases
Substance-Related Disorders
Chemically-Induced Disorders
Mental Disorders
Opiate Alkaloids
Analgesics, Opioid
Central Nervous System Depressants
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Sensory System Agents
Peripheral Nervous System Agents
Antihypertensive Agents
Autonomic Agents
Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists
Adrenergic alpha-Agonists
Adrenergic Agonists
Adrenergic Agents
Neurotransmitter Agents
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action