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Study of Everolimus and Low-dose Cyclophosphamide in Patients With Metastatic Renal Cell Cancer

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01462214
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : October 31, 2011
Last Update Posted : May 10, 2017
Dutch Cancer Society
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Hans J. van der Vliet, MD, PhD, Amsterdam UMC, location VUmc

Brief Summary:
In the present phase 1-2 study the investigators aim to determine whether depletion of Tregs using metronomic cyclophosphamide can enhance the antitumor efficacy of everolimus in patients with mRCC not amenable to or progressive after a VEGF-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor containing treatment regimen. In the phase 1 part of the study the investigators will determine the optimal CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cell-depleting dose and schedule of metronomic oral cyclophosphamide when given in combination with a fixed dose (10 mg daily) of everolimus. In the phase 2 part of the study the investigators will subsequently evaluate whether the number of patients who are cancer progression free at 4 months can be increased from 50% to 70% by adding metronomic cyclophosphamide (in the dose and schedule determined in the phase 1 part) to everolimus. In addition to efficacy, the investigators will evaluate treatment toxicity to determine whether this combination strategy is feasible and safe.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Metastatic Renal Cell Cancer Drug: Everolimus Phase 1 Phase 2

Detailed Description:
This is a phase I/II, national multi-center study of different doses and schedules of low-dose oral cyclophosphamide in combination with fixed dose everolimus in patients with mRCC not amenable to or progressive after a VEGF-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor containing treatment regimen. Phase I part: Patients will be enrolled in cohorts of 5 per dose level. The first 5 patients enrolled will be assigned to dose level 0 in order to assess immune and angiogenic effects caused by everolimus monotherapy. The second 5 patients enrolled will be assigned to dose level 1. If there are ≤1 dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) experienced by the first 5 patients in a cohort during the first 28 days after the first study treatment, further patients will be entered in the next dose level. Entry of patients into the expansion cohort will not occur until at least 28 days after the last patient in the escalation phase received his/her first study treatment. At the final dose level recommended for the phase II study a minimum of 10 patients will be treated. Phase II part: In the phase 2 part of the study up to 56 patients will be treated at the dose level that has been selected based on its capacity to most selectively deplete circulating Treg levels in the phase 1 part of the study. Based on data of patients with mRCC treated with everolimus monotherapy after previous treatment with sunitinib ± sorafenib, the investigators aim to increase the number of patients who are alive and cancer progression free at 4 months from 50% to 70% by adding metronomic cyclophosphamide. In addition, the investigators consider this increase meaningful as long as the combination treatment does not cause combination treatment related toxicity ≥ grade 3 in ≥ 30% of patients.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 96 participants
Allocation: Non-Randomized
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Phase 1-2 Study of Everolimus and Low-dose Cyclophosphamide in Patients With Metastatic Renal Cell Cancer.
Study Start Date : October 2011
Actual Primary Completion Date : January 2017
Actual Study Completion Date : January 2017

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

Intervention Details:
  • Drug: Everolimus
    Patients will be treated with low-dose oral cyclophosphamide (8 different dose levels and schedules) in combination with fixed dose (10 mg) everolimus in patients with mRCC.

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Number of Participants with Adverse Events as a Measure of Safety and Tolerability [ Time Frame: from 28 days up to 2 years ]
    Outcome measure in Phase 1 and 2 part

  2. Number of patients progression-free at 4 months. [ Time Frame: 4 months ]
    Outcome measure in phase 2 part

  3. Depletion of circulating CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells [ Time Frame: 28 days ]
    Treatment schedule that most selectively induces CD4+CD25+ Treg depletion in phase 1 part will be selected for phase 2.

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Response rate [ Time Frame: 2 years ]
  2. Frequency of tumor infiltrating CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells. [ Time Frame: 2 years ]
  3. Peripheral blood drug levels of everolimus and cyclophosphamide [ Time Frame: 2 years ]
  4. Overall survival [ Time Frame: 2 years ]

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Patients with histologically or cytologically confirmed clear-cell mRCC with progressive disease and not amenable to or progressive on or within 6 months of stopping treatment with a VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (sunitinib (or pazopanib) ± sorafenib).
  • Prior therapy with cytokines (i.e. IL-2, interferon) and/or VEGF-ligand inhibitors (i.e. bevacizumab) is permitted.
  • Patients with brain metastases are eligible if they have been stable for at least two months post-radiation therapy or surgery.
  • Aged 18 years or older.
  • No other current malignant disease, except for basal cell carcinoma of the skin.
  • WHO performance status 0-2.
  • Life expectancy of at least 12 weeks.
  • Adequate hematologic function: ANC ≥ 1.5 x 109/L, platelets ≥ 100 x 109/L, Hb ≥ 6.0 mmol/L.
  • Adequate hepatic function: serum bilirubin ≤ 1.5 x ULN, ALT and AST ≤ 2.5 x ULN (or ≤ 5 times ULN if liver metastases are present).
  • Adequate renal function: calculated creatinine clearance ≥ 50 ml/min.
  • Measurable or evaluable disease as defined by RECIST 1.1.
  • Patients with reproductive potential must use effective contraception. Female patients must have a negative pregnancy test.
  • Signed informed consent.
  • Able to receive oral medication.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Patients currently receiving chemotherapy, immunotherapy, or radiotherapy or who have received these ≤ 4 weeks prior to visit 1. The wash-out period for sunitinib or sorafenib is at least 2 weeks from the first dose of the study medication.
  • Known human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or other major immunodeficiency.
  • Immunosuppressive agents within 3 weeks of study entry, except for low dose corticosteroids when given for disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, or adrenal insufficiency. Topical or inhaled corticosteroids are permitted.
  • Patients with an active bleeding diathesis or on oral anti-vitamin K medication.
  • Patients with untreated CNS metastases with clinical symptoms or who have received treatment for CNS metastases within 2 months of study entry. Patients with treated CNS metastases, who are neurologically stable and off of corticosteroids for more than 2 months prior to study entry are eligible to enter the study.
  • Active infection or serious intercurrent illness, except asymptomatic bacteriuria.
  • Presence of unstable angina, recent myocardial infarction (within the previous 6 months), or use of ongoing maintenance therapy for life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia.
  • Macroscopic hematuria
  • Prior therapy with mTOR inhibitors. 10. Known hypersensitivity to everolimus or other rapamycins (sirolimus/temsirolimus) or to its excipients.
  • Pregnant or nursing women, or women who were of childbearing potential and who were not utilizing an effective contraceptive method. A woman of childbearing potential is defined as a female who is biologically capable of becoming pregnant. Men with partners of childbearing potential not using an effective method of contraception. (Use of effective contraceptives must continue for 3 months after the last dose of everolimus).
  • Presence of any significant central nervous system or psychiatric disorder(s) that would hamper the patient's compliance.
  • Uncontrolled diabetes as defined by fasting serum glucose > 2 ULN, severely impaired lung function.
  • Cirrhosis/chronic active hepatitis/chronic persistent hepatitis, history of HCV infection (for hepatitis screening indications see section 3.3).
  • Drug or alcohol abuse.
  • Any other major illness that, in the investigator's judgment, substantially increased the risk associated with the subject's participation in the study.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT01462214

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Medisch Centrum Alkmaar
Alkmaar, Netherlands
VU University Medical Center
Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1081 HV
Amsterdam, Netherlands
Haga Ziekenhuis
Den Haag, Netherlands
Medisch Centrum Haaglanden
Den Haag, Netherlands
Universitair Medisch Centrum Groningen
Groningen, Netherlands
Spaarne Ziekenhuis Hoofddorp
Hoofddorp, Netherlands
Medisch Centrum Leeuwarden
Leeuwarden, Netherlands
University Hospital Maastricht
Maastricht, Netherlands
St. Antonius Ziekenhuis
Nieuwegein, Netherlands
UMC St Radboud Nijmegen
Nijmegen, Netherlands
Sint Franciscus Gasthuis Rotterdam
Rotterdam, Netherlands
Isala Klinieken Zwolle
Zwolle, Netherlands
Sponsors and Collaborators
Hans J. van der Vliet, MD, PhD
Dutch Cancer Society
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Study Director: Hans J. van der Vliet, MD, PhD Amsterdam UMC, location VUmc
Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
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Responsible Party: Hans J. van der Vliet, MD, PhD, Medical Oncologist, Department of Medical Oncology, Amsterdam UMC, location VUmc
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01462214    
Other Study ID Numbers: 11/016
First Posted: October 31, 2011    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: May 10, 2017
Last Verified: May 2017
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Carcinoma, Renal Cell
Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial
Neoplasms by Histologic Type
Kidney Neoplasms
Urologic Neoplasms
Urogenital Neoplasms
Neoplasms by Site
Kidney Diseases
Urologic Diseases
Antineoplastic Agents
Immunosuppressive Agents
Immunologic Factors
Physiological Effects of Drugs