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Discontinuation of Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole Prophylaxis in Adults on Antiretroviral Therapy in Kenya

This study has been completed.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
First Posted: August 29, 2011
Last Update Posted: April 11, 2014
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
Kenya Medical Research Institute
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Christina Polyak, University of Washington
Both antiretroviral therapy (ART) and prevention of opportunistic infections (OIs) have been associated with significantly decreased mortality in HIV-infected individuals. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMZ), also known as bactrim, is a common antibiotic and used as prophylaxis for OIs. For countries with high prevalence of HIV and limited health infrastructure, the WHO endorses universal TMP/SMZ for all HIV-infected individuals. Notably, these guidelines were created prior to the scale-up of ARTs. Following ART and subsequent immune recovery, TMP/SMZ may no longer be required. In the US and Europe, for example, TMP/SMZ is discontinued after patients show evidence of immune recovery. Therefore, we propose a prospective randomized trial among HIV infected individuals on ART with evidence of immune recovery (ART for > 18mo and CD4 >350 cells/mm3) to determine whether continued TMP/SMZ prophylaxis confers benefits in decreasing morbidity (malaria, pneumonia, diarrhea), mortality, CD4 count maintenance, ART treatment failure and malaria immune responses.

Condition Intervention
HIV Infections Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Disease Progression Immune System Diseases Malaria Parasitic Diseases Pneumonia Diarrhea Infectious Disorder of Immune System Other: Discontinue TMP/SMZ prophylaxis

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Discontinuation of Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole Prophylaxis in Adults on Antiretroviral Therapy in Kenya: a Randomized Trial

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by Christina Polyak, University of Washington:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Incidence of severe infectious morbidity (malaria, pneumonia, diarrhea) [ Time Frame: 12 months ]
    A combined outcome of malaria, pneumonia or severe diarrhea.

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • CD4 count increase [ Time Frame: 12 months ]
    CD4 count increase

  • Rate of ART treatment failure [ Time Frame: 12 months ]
    Rate of ART treatment failure

Enrollment: 500
Study Start Date: February 2012
Study Completion Date: October 2013
Primary Completion Date: October 2013 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Stop TMP/SMZ
Arm 1 will have patients discontinue trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMZ) prophylaxis; patients will follow up every 3 months with study staff.
Other: Discontinue TMP/SMZ prophylaxis
Subjects in the intervention arm will discontinue use of daily TMP/SMZ for the duration of the study
Other Names:
  • Septrin
  • Septra
  • Cotrimoxazole
  • Bactrim
No Intervention: Standard of care TMP/SMZ prophylaxis
Arm 2 will continue standard of care treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMZ) prophylaxis.

Detailed Description:
Please see summary above.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Participants must be at least 18 years of age.
  • Participants must be willing to participate and give written informed consent.
  • Participants must be willing and able to return for the scheduled follow-up visits.
  • Participants must have been on ART for > 18 months.
  • Participants must have a CD4 count of > 350 cells/mm3.
  • Participants must not be suspected of ART treatment failure.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Participants must not be pregnant at enrollment (by urine HCG testing).
  • Participants must not be breastfeeding at the time of enrollment.
  • Participants must be on first-line ART therapy as defined by Kenyan National Guidelines.
  Contacts and Locations
Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT01425073

Homa Bay District Hospital
Homa Bay, Nyanza Pronvince, Kenya
Kombewa District Hospital
Kombewa, Nyanza, Kenya
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Washington
Kenya Medical Research Institute
Principal Investigator: Christina Polyak, MD, MPH Kenya Medical Research Institute/ Department of Medicine, University of Washington
  More Information

McNaghten AD, Hanson DL, Jones JL, Dworkin MS, Ward JW. Effects of antiretroviral therapy and opportunistic illness primary chemoprophylaxis on survival after AIDS diagnosis. Adult/Adolescent Spectrum of Disease Group. AIDS. 1999 Sep 10;13(13):1687-95. Erratum in: AIDS 2000 Aug 18;14(12):1877.
Anglaret X, Chêne G, Attia A, Toure S, Lafont S, Combe P, Manlan K, N'Dri-Yoman T, Salamon R. Early chemoprophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole for HIV-1-infected adults in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire: a randomised trial. Cotrimo-CI Study Group. Lancet. 1999 May 1;353(9163):1463-8.
Wiktor SZ, Sassan-Morokro M, Grant AD, Abouya L, Karon JM, Maurice C, Djomand G, Ackah A, Domoua K, Kadio A, Yapi A, Combe P, Tossou O, Roels TH, Lackritz EM, Coulibaly D, De Cock KM, Coulibaly IM, Greenberg AE. Efficacy of trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole prophylaxis to decrease morbidity and mortality in HIV-1-infected patients with tuberculosis in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 1999 May 1;353(9163):1469-75. Erratum in: Lancet 1999 Jun 12;353(9169):2078.
Mermin J, Lule J, Ekwaru JP, Malamba S, Downing R, Ransom R, Kaharuza F, Culver D, Kizito F, Bunnell R, Kigozi A, Nakanjako D, Wafula W, Quick R. Effect of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis on morbidity, mortality, CD4-cell count, and viral load in HIV infection in rural Uganda. Lancet. 2004 Oct 16-22;364(9443):1428-34.
Hamel MJ, Greene C, Chiller T, Ouma P, Polyak C, Otieno K, Williamson J, Shi YP, Feikin DR, Marston B, Brooks JT, Poe A, Zhou Z, Ochieng B, Mintz E, Slutsker L. Does cotrimoxazole prophylaxis for the prevention of HIV-associated opportunistic infections select for resistant pathogens in Kenyan adults? Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008 Sep;79(3):320-30.
Furrer H, Egger M, Opravil M, Bernasconi E, Hirschel B, Battegay M, Telenti A, Vernazza PL, Rickenbach M, Flepp M, Malinverni R. Discontinuation of primary prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in HIV-1-infected adults treated with combination antiretroviral therapy. Swiss HIV Cohort Study. N Engl J Med. 1999 Apr 29;340(17):1301-6.
Weverling GJ, Mocroft A, Ledergerber B, Kirk O, Gonzáles-Lahoz J, d'Arminio Monforte A, Proenca R, Phillips AN, Lundgren JD, Reiss P. Discontinuation of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia prophylaxis after start of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1 infection. EuroSIDA Study Group. Lancet. 1999 Apr 17;353(9161):1293-8.
Lowrance D, Makombe S, Harries A, Yu J, Aberle-Grasse J, Eiger O, Shiraishi R, Marston B, Ellerbrock T, Libamba E. Lower early mortality rates among patients receiving antiretroviral treatment at clinics offering cotrimoxazole prophylaxis in Malawi. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007 Sep 1;46(1):56-61.
Walker AS, Ford D, Gilks CF, Munderi P, Ssali F, Reid A, Katabira E, Grosskurth H, Mugyenyi P, Hakim J, Darbyshire JH, Gibb DM, Babiker AG. Daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in severely immunosuppressed HIV-infected adults in Africa started on combination antiretroviral therapy: an observational analysis of the DART cohort. Lancet. 2010 Apr 10;375(9722):1278-86. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60057-8. Epub 2010 Mar 27.
Phillips-Howard PA, Nahlen BL, Kolczak MS, Hightower AW, ter Kuile FO, Alaii JA, Gimnig JE, Arudo J, Vulule JM, Odhacha A, Kachur SP, Schoute E, Rosen DH, Sexton JD, Oloo AJ, Hawley WA. Efficacy of permethrin-treated bed nets in the prevention of mortality in young children in an area of high perennial malaria transmission in western Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2003 Apr;68(4 Suppl):23-9.
Piaggio G, Elbourne DR, Altman DG, Pocock SJ, Evans SJ; CONSORT Group. Reporting of noninferiority and equivalence randomized trials: an extension of the CONSORT statement. JAMA. 2006 Mar 8;295(10):1152-60. Erratum in: JAMA. 2006 Oct 18;296(15):1842.

Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
Responsible Party: Christina Polyak, Principal Investigator, University of Washington
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01425073     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 40461-B
First Submitted: August 25, 2011
First Posted: August 29, 2011
Last Update Posted: April 11, 2014
Last Verified: April 2014

Keywords provided by Christina Polyak, University of Washington:

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
HIV Infections
Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes
Disease Progression
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Immune System Diseases
Communicable Diseases
Parasitic Diseases
Lentivirus Infections
Retroviridae Infections
RNA Virus Infections
Virus Diseases
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Lung Diseases
Respiratory Tract Diseases
Respiratory Tract Infections
Protozoan Infections
Disease Attributes
Pathologic Processes
Signs and Symptoms, Digestive
Signs and Symptoms
Slow Virus Diseases
Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination
Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary

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