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Evaluation of 3TC or FTC Mono-therapy Compared to Continuing HAART as a Bridging Strategy (P1094)

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01338025
Recruitment Status : Terminated (Study was halted for lack of accrual)
First Posted : April 19, 2011
Results First Posted : May 23, 2014
Last Update Posted : November 13, 2015
Information provided by (Responsible Party):

Study Description
Brief Summary:

The purpose of this study was to compare the use of lamivudine (3TC) or emtricitabine (FTC) alone vs. continuing a failing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen in HIV infected children, adolescents and young adults. The study was to see if there were changes in the HIV virus and if there were differences in immune function, viral load and medication side effects between the two groups over 28 weeks. Participants were assigned to either take 3TC or FTC alone or continue on his/her current failing HAART regimen. During the first 28 weeks of this study, if the participant was randomized to the continue HAART arm, he/she was not switched to a different or new, potentially suppressive HAART regimen, but continued on the current failing HAART regimen. However, if continuing HAART, the participant might be switched to a new regimen if their provider felt that it was clinically needed or the participant met certain study endpoints (e.g., drop in CD4, increase in viral load).

At the end of 28 weeks, the participant had the choice of remaining on the assigned study group medication(s) or starting a new HAART regimen prescribed by his/her doctor. Then, they would be followed for another 24 weeks to compare the difference in immune function, viral load and medication side effects between the different groups.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
HIV Disease Drug: HAART regimen Drug: 3TC or FTC monotherapy Phase 4

Detailed Description:

Currently, there is no clear consensus for managing virologic failure. Generally, failure of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based therapy due to non-adherence is associated with high rates of NNRTI resistance, while failure of protease inhibitor (PI)-based therapy due to non-adherence carries a much lower risk of PI resistance. In the setting of incomplete adherence and virologic failure despite adherence education, an optimal strategy would be one that effectively bridges the period between the cessation of the failing regimen of highly active antiretroviral (ARV) therapy and initiation of a new HAART regimen. This would provide time for interventions to improve adherence to be effective while minimizing accumulation of additional drug resistance mutations. Given the compelling need for an effective bridging strategy, the limited evidence for the safety and efficacy of this bridging regimen, and the high level of acceptability of studying 3TC or FTC monotherapy as an effective alternative, P1094 proposed to conduct a randomized clinical trial (RCT) comparing use of 3TC or FTC monotherapy as a short-term bridging regimen vs. continuation of non-suppressive HAART in non-adherent subjects.

This study closed early due to lack of accrual, with only 33 of the target 344 participants enrolled. Therefore analyses, including the analysis of the primary outcome, are descriptive. Only analyses for Step 1 could be done (Step 2 was observational). The following secondary analyses could not be performed:

Changes in Genotypic HIV Drug Resistance From Baseline Changes HIV Replication Capacity [Time Frame: 28 and 52 weeks] Changes in CD4 Percent and CD4+ T Cell Count [Time Frame: 52 weeks] Changes in HIV-1 RNA Levels [Time Frame: 52 Weeks] Changes in Immune Activation [Time Frame: 28 and 52 Weeks] Number and Percent of Subjects With Adverse Clinical Outcomes [Time Frame: 52 Weeks] Adherence as Measured by 3-day Recall [Time Frame: 52 Weeks]

Study Design

Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 33 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Evaluation of 3TC or FTC Mono-therapy Compared to Continuing HAART as a Bridging Antiretroviral Strategy in Persistently Non-adherent Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults Who Are Failing HAART and Have the M184V Resistance Mutation.
Study Start Date : March 2011
Primary Completion Date : May 2013
Study Completion Date : May 2013

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: HIV/AIDS
Drug Information available for: Lamivudine
U.S. FDA Resources

Arms and Interventions

Arm Intervention/treatment
Active Comparator: Arm A, non-suppressive HAART regimen

In Step 1, subjects were randomized to continue their non-suppressive HAART regimen.

In Step 2, subjects either began a new HAART regimen, continued randomized treatment, or discontinued therapy while remaining on follow-up, as decided by their provider.

Drug: HAART regimen
The study participant continued their non-suppressive HAART regimen as prescribed by their primary provider.
Other Name: Highly active antiretrovial therapy (HAART)
Active Comparator: Arm B, 3TC or FTC monotherapy

In step 1, subjects were randomized to receive 3TC or FTC (the choice of 3TC or FTC was left to the provider).

In Step 2, subjects either began a new HAART regimen, continued randomized treatment, or discontinued therapy while remaining on follow-up, as decided by their provider.

Drug: 3TC or FTC monotherapy
The study participant was assigned to either 3TC or FTC monotherapy (the choice of 3TC or FTC was left to the provider.
Other Names:
  • Lamivudine (3TC)
  • emtricitabine (FTC)

Outcome Measures

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Number of Participants With Immunologic Deterioration [ Time Frame: From entry to week 28 ]

    Immunologic deterioration was declared for a participant if any one of the following conditions is observed within the first 28 weeks:

    • greater than or equal to 30% decline in absolute CD4+ T cell count from entry, or
    • development of CDC class C events.

    Results report number of participants with immunologic deterioration at week 28 calculated.

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Change in CD4+ T Cell Count [ Time Frame: Entry to week 28 ]
    Change in CD4+ T cell count from entry to Week 28 (CD4+ at entry - CD4+ at Week 28).

  2. Change in HIV-1 RNA Levels [ Time Frame: 28 Weeks ]
    Change in HIV-1 RNA levels from Entry to Week 28

  3. Number of Participants Non-adherent as Measured by 3-day Recall [ Time Frame: 28 Weeks ]
    Number of participants reporting a missed medication dose in the past 3 days.

Eligibility Criteria

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   8 Years to 24 Years   (Child, Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Step 1 Inclusion Criteria:

  • Age greater than or equal to 8 to less than 25 years of age, at study entry
  • Documentation of HIV-1 infection defined as positive results from two samples collected at different time points
  • Treatment experienced patients must have demonstrated failure on the current HAART regimen for 2 months or longer. These patients must have been on ARVs for at least a total of 6 months prior to entry. Thus, if the failing regimen was the first ARV regimen, then the patient must have been on that initial regimen for a minimum of 6 months total.
  • CD4+ T cell count greater than or equal to 100 cells/mm3 (confirmed on at least two occasions within 6 months of study entry, including the screening value)
  • Documentation of the M184V mutation on genotypic testing at any time prior to study entry
  • In the best judgment of the clinical site team, concerns about the subject's ability to adhere made it unsuitable to initiate a new optimal HAART regimen for at least 6 months.
  • Subject had not become adherent despite site's adherence interventions
  • Female subjects of reproductive potential engaging in sexual activity that could lead to pregnancy had to agree to avoid pregnancy during the entire 52 week trial and to consistently and appropriately use at least two of the following contraception methods: condoms, diaphragm or cervical cap with spermicide, IUD, hormonal-based contraception. A list of acceptable methods can be found at the FDA Birth Control Guide (http://www.fda.gov/womens).
  • Parent/legal guardian or subject able and willing to provide signed informed consent when applicable

Step 1 Exclusion Criteria:

  • Positive hepatitis B surface antigen or known active hepatitis B infection.
  • Pregnant or breastfeeding.
  • Active malignancy within the past 2 years.
  • Current immunosuppressive therapy, including the equivalent of greater than 1 mg/kg/per day or greater than 20 mg total daily dose of prednisone in the 2 weeks preceding screening. Subjects for whom long-term systemic corticosteroid therapy (greater than 2 weeks) was anticipated were excluded. [Note: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents and inhaled, nasal, and topical corticosteroids were not excluded as immunosuppressive therapy.]
  • Prior immunization with an HIV-specific vaccine
  • Greater than or equal to 1 CDC class C event within the past 12 months.
  • Renal disease (as defined by estimated creatinine clearance less than 50 mL/min/1.73m2 confirmed on two occasions within 3 months of screening).
  • Active opportunistic infections, including active tuberculosis (TB).
  • Current treatment for active systemic TB. If recent, infection must have completed treatment course. INH treatment for latent TB is allowed.
  • Viral load greater than 250,000 copies/mL at screening.
  • Known greater than or equal than Grade 3 of any of the following laboratory toxicities within 30 days prior to study entry: neutrophil count, hemoglobin, platelets, AST, ALT, lipase, serum creatinine. Note: Subjects could be re-screened and enrolled if repeat value was less than Grade 3 without signs or symptoms of related organ dysfunction.
  • Known greater than or equal to Grade 4 laboratory toxicities within 30 days prior to study entry, except with approval of the study team.
  • For subjects who were not taking 3TC or FTC at the time of screening: Documented prior intolerance or adverse effect reasonably attributed to 3TC or FTC that resulted in permanent discontinuation.
  • Problems with non-adherence attributed to modifiable structural barriers, such as lack of resources (e.g., insurance, transportation).

Step 2 - Inclusion Criteria

  • Met requirements for completion of Step 1
  • Subject/guardian agree to continue participation in Step 2
  • ViroSeq assay results had been received by site and reviewed by investigator
Contacts and Locations

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT01338025

United States, California
Univ. of California San Francisco NICHD CRS (5091)
San Francisco,, California, United States, 94117
United States, District of Columbia
Children's National Med. Ctr. Washington DC NICHD CRS (5015)
Washington, District of Columbia, United States, 20010
United States, Florida
University of Florida (5051)
Jacksonville, Florida, United States, 32209
Univ of Miami Pediatric/Perinatal HIV/AIDS (4201)
Miami, Florida, United States, 33136
United States, Illinois
Chicago Children's CRS (4001)
Chicago, Illinois, United States, 60614
United States, Maryland
Johns Hopkins University NICHD CRS (5092)
Baltimore, Maryland, United States, 21287
United States, New York
Bronx-Lebanon Hospital (6901)
Bronx, New York, United States, 10457
Metropolitan Hospital (5003)
New York, New York, United States, 10029
SUNY Stony Brook NICHD CRS (5040)
Stony Brook, New York, United States, 11794
United States, North Carolina
DUMC Ped. CRS (4701)
Durham, North Carolina, United States, 27710-3499
Hospital General de Agudos Buenos Aires Argentina NICHD CRS (5082)
Buenos Aires, Argentina, C1221ADC
Hospital Geral De Nova Igaucu Brazil NICHD CRS (5097)
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 26030
Insituto de Infectologia Emilio Ribas NICHD CRS (5075)
Sao Paulo, Brazil, 01246-900
Univ of Sao Paulo Brazil NICHD CRS (5074)
Sao Paulo, Brazil, 14049-900
Puerto Rico
University of Puerto Rico Pediatric HIV/AIDS Research (6601)
San Juan, Puerto Rico, 00936-5067
Siriraj Hospital Mahidol University CRS (8251)
Bangkok, Ratchathewi,, Thailand, 10700
Chiang Mai University Pediatrics-Obstetrics CRS (20101)
Chiang Mai, Thailand, 50200
Sponsors and Collaborators
International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials Group
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD)
Study Chair: Allison L. Agwu, MD, Sc.M. Johns Hopkins University
More Information

Responsible Party: International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials Group
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01338025     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: IMPAACT P1094
U01AI068632 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
First Posted: April 19, 2011    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: May 23, 2014
Last Update Posted: November 13, 2015
Last Verified: October 2015

Keywords provided by International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials Group:

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
HIV Infections
Lentivirus Infections
Retroviridae Infections
RNA Virus Infections
Virus Diseases
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Slow Virus Diseases
Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes
Immune System Diseases
Antiviral Agents
Anti-Infective Agents
Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors
Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Anti-Retroviral Agents
Anti-HIV Agents