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Bone Loss and Immune Reconstitution in HIV/AIDS (BLIR-HIV) (BLIR-HIV)

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01228318
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : October 26, 2010
Results First Posted : June 25, 2018
Last Update Posted : June 25, 2018
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Ighovwerha Ofotokun, Emory University

Brief Summary:
With the increasing age of people living with HIV/AIDS, age-induced osteoporosis is likely to be compounded by HIV/AIDS and HAART-associated bone loss. Mechanistically, osteoclasts the cells responsible for bone resorption form under the influence of the key osteoclastogenic cytokine receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-Β ligand (RANKL). The osteoclastogenic and proresorptive activities of RANKL are moderated by its physiological decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG). Imbalance in the ratio of RANKL to OPG alters osteoclastic bone resorption and lead to osteoporosis. Activated T- and B-cells are a major source of RANKL, while normal physiological B-cells are a major source of OPG. T-cells regulate the production of OPG by B-cells. Thus changes in the immune system induced by HIV/AIDS and/or by HAART could affect B-cell and T-cells RANKL and OPG production. Indeed, data from our group shows that in an animal model of HIV/AIDS, the HIV-1 Transgenic rat, the development of osteoporosis is recapitulated as observed in HIV-infected patients, and B-cell OPG and RANKL production are concurrently down regulated and upregulated respectively. Furthermore, preliminary data in HIV-infected subjects suggests dramatic acute upswing in bone resorption following HAART initiation that peaks at 12 weeks and then declines. Based on these findings, the investigators hypothesize HAART associated bone loss is driven by immune reconstitution. Because this effect of HAART is dramatic in magnitude but short in duration, the investigators propose to apply antiresorptive agent (zoledronic acid, reclast®) to specifically spare patients from this dramatic but acute bone damage.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
HIV Infection Bone Loss Osteopenia Osteoporosis Drug: Zoledronic acid Phase 2

Detailed Description:

In a prospective, blinded placebo-controlled randomized trial, treatment naïve HIV-infected subjects initiating HAART will be assigned to HAART + zoledronic acid or HAART + placebo. Serial assessment of serum levels of bone markers, cellular expression of OPG/RANKL and other cytokines, cellular immune activation markers, serum bone regulating hormones, and bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan will be undertaken at pre-defined time points from baseline through week 144 of HAART.

In the primary analysis, changes in serum C-Terminal Telopeptide (CTx) level, BMD, and cellular OPG/RANKL expression from baseline through week 24 will be quantitated and subsequently compared between treatment arms. In addition, the impact of zoledronic acid administration on these covariates will be assessed at various study time points. The relationship between OPG/RANKL expression, immune activation, serum bone regulating hormonal levels, and bone turnover will be evaluated.


Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 63 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Triple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Bone Loss and Immune Reconstitution in HIV/AIDS (BLIR-HIV)
Study Start Date : January 2011
Actual Primary Completion Date : April 13, 2017
Actual Study Completion Date : April 13, 2017

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: HIV/AIDS

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Zoledronic acid
Subjects in this arm will receive 5 milligram (mg) per 100 milliliter (mL) solution of zoledronic acid infused intravenously over 15-30 minutes under the supervision of study personnel.
Drug: Zoledronic acid
  1. A single dose of reclast containing 5 mg/100 mL ready-to-infuse zoledronic acid solution administered over 15-30 minutes.
  2. A single dose of placebo containing 220 mg mannitol and 24 mg sodium citrate in a 100 mL ready-to-infuse solution, administered over 15-30 minutes.
Other Name: Reclast

Placebo Comparator: Placebo
Subjects in the placebo arm will receive placebo containing 220 mg mannitol and 24 mg sodium citrate in a 100 mL ready-to-infuse solution administered iv over 15-30 minutes under the supervision of study personnel.
Drug: Zoledronic acid
  1. A single dose of reclast containing 5 mg/100 mL ready-to-infuse zoledronic acid solution administered over 15-30 minutes.
  2. A single dose of placebo containing 220 mg mannitol and 24 mg sodium citrate in a 100 mL ready-to-infuse solution, administered over 15-30 minutes.
Other Name: Reclast




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Baseline-Adjusted Means for C-terminal Telopeptide of Collagen (CTx) Levels [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 12 through Week 144 ]
    Serum C-terminal telopeptide of collagen (CTx) levels through week 144 were examined by evaluating the baseline-adjusted means. The baseline-adjusted CTx mean is defined as the predicted response value obtained by fitting the regression equation for each treatment arm at the mean baseline value for the 2 treatment arms. The adjusted means were estimated using analysis of covariance at each scheduled clinical visit. The expected outcome is that HIV-infected individuals will display increased indices of bone resorption (CTx) as a result of diminished bone mineral density (BMD). Lower CTx values indicate that better maintenance of bone mineral density.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Baseline-Adjusted Means of Osteocalcin [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 144 ]
    Osteocalcin was evaluated to examine the inhibitory effect of single dose zoledronic acid on HAART associated changes in markers of bone turnover. Osteocalcin is released from bone during resorption and higher levels in the circulatory system indicate increased bone turnover. HIV-infected individuals are expected to have increased bone resorption. The baseline-adjusted osteocalcin mean is defined as the predicted response value obtained by fitting the regression equation for each treatment arm at the mean baseline value for the 2 treatment arms. The adjusted means were estimated using analysis of covariance at the Week 144 clinic visit. Baseline-adjusted means of osteocalcin at week 144 are presented.


Other Outcome Measures:
  1. Baseline-Adjusted Means of Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 144 ]
    Development of osteoporosis was assessed by examining bone mineral density (BMD) by DXA scan. Baseline-adjusted means of DXA scan Z-scores are presented for the lumbar spine (L1-L4), left hip, and femur neck. The baseline-adjusted BMD mean is defined as the predicted response value obtained by fitting the regression equation for each treatment arm at the mean baseline value for the 2 treatment arms. The adjusted means were estimated using analysis of covariance at the Week 144 clinic visit. Bone density Z-scores tell how close to the average that a person is (adjusted for age, race, and gender). A Z-score of 0 means the value matches that of the average person. Z-score values below 0 indicate lower than average bone density while values above 0 indicate higher bone density than the average person.



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Ages Eligible for Study:   30 Years to 50 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. HIV-1 infection, as documented by any licensed serologic test and confirmed by a western blot or by a positive plasma HIV-1 RNA performed by any laboratory that has a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) certification.
  2. Meets Grady Infectious Disease Program (IDP) clinical criteria for antiretroviral therapy initiation, and subject and his/her provider are agreeable to subject initiating therapy with a regimen consisting of atazanavir (ATV)/ritonavir (RTV) + emtricitabine (FTC)/tenofovir (TDF) as part of his/her routine HIV management.
  3. Ambulatory men and women age ≥ 30 ≤ 50 years.
  4. Ability and willingness of subject or legal guardian/representative to give written informed consent.
  5. Antiretroviral (ARV) drug-naïve (defined as ≤ 10 days of antiretroviral therapy (ART) at any time prior to entry).
  6. Screening HIV-1 RNA ≥ 1000 copies/mL obtained within 90 days prior to study entry by any FDA-approved test for quantifying HIV-1 RNA at any laboratory that has a CLIA certification.
  7. Laboratory values obtained within 90 days prior to study entry.

    • Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) ≥ 500/mm3
    • Hemoglobin ≥ 8.0 g/dL
    • Platelet count ≥ 40,000/mm3
    • Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase ≥ 3 x upper limit of normal (ULN)
    • Total bilirubin ≥ 2.5 x ULN
    • Calcium ≥ 8.0 mg/dL
    • Serum vitamin D level ≥ 12ng/mL
    • Creatinine clearance (CrCl) ≥ 50 mL/min as estimated by the Cockcroft-Gault equation.
  8. Absence of history of non-HIV related active immunological or bone disorders such as:

    • Bone marrow or organ transplantation
    • Inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease)
    • Multiple Myeloma
    • Osteogenesis imperfecta
    • Osteomalacia
    • Osteosarcoma
    • Paget's disease
    • Postmenopausal osteoporosis
    • Rheumatoid arthritis
    • Systemic lupus erythematosus
    • Thyroid disorders (hyper/hypothyroidism)
  9. Contraception requirements

    1. Female Subjects of Reproductive Potential:

      Female subjects of reproductive potential, who are participating in sexual activity that could lead to pregnancy, must agree to use at least one reliable method of contraception while participating in the study. Acceptable methods of contraception include:

      • Condoms (male or female) with or without a spermicidal agent
      • Diaphragm or cervical cap with spermicide
      • Intrauterine device (IUD)
      • Hormone-based contraceptive (must contain at ≥ 35 mcg of ethinyl estradiol)
    2. Female Subjects Who Are Not of Reproductive Potential.

Exclusion Criteria:

  1. Pregnancy or breast feeding
  2. Physical or biochemical evidence or a medical history of malignancy.
  3. Currently (within the past 8 weeks) taking any medication with known influence on the immune or skeletal system (e.g. immune modulation therapy, glucocorticoids, steroid hormones, other bisphosphonates).
  4. Osteoporosis defined as T-score <-2.5 at the hip, or spine, or history of osteoporotic fracture.
  5. Prior or current use of zoledronic acid (reclast®)
  6. Recent (within the past 6 months) or planned (within the next 6 months) invasive dental procedure.
  7. Known allergy/sensitivity to study drugs or their formulations or mammalian cell derived drug products.
  8. Any condition that, in the opinion of the investigators, would compromise the subject's ability to participate in the study.
  9. Serious illness requiring systemic treatment and/or hospitalization until subject either completes therapy or is clinically stable on therapy, in the opinion of the investigators, for at least 7 days prior to study entry.
  10. Requirement for any current medications that are prohibited with any study drugs. Prohibited medications must be discontinued at least 30 days prior to entry.
  11. Current imprisonment or involuntary incarceration in a medical facility for psychiatric or physical illness.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT01228318


Locations
United States, Georgia
Grady Infectious Diseases Clinic (Ponce Center)
Atlanta, Georgia, United States, 30308
Sponsors and Collaborators
Emory University
Investigators
Principal Investigator: Igho Ofotokun, MD, MSc Emory University
Principal Investigator: Mervyn N Weitzmann, PhD Emory University
  Study Documents (Full-Text)

Documents provided by Ighovwerha Ofotokun, Emory University:
Informed Consent Form  [PDF] June 6, 2014


Publications of Results:
Other Publications:
Responsible Party: Ighovwerha Ofotokun, Associate Professor of Medicine, Emory University
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01228318     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: IRB00038739
BLIR-HIV ( Other Identifier: Other )
First Posted: October 26, 2010    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: June 25, 2018
Last Update Posted: June 25, 2018
Last Verified: May 2018
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: Undecided

Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: Yes
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No

Keywords provided by Ighovwerha Ofotokun, Emory University:
HAART
Antiresorptive drugs
HIV/AIDS
Bone loss

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
HIV Infections
Osteoporosis
Bone Diseases, Metabolic
Lentivirus Infections
Retroviridae Infections
RNA Virus Infections
Virus Diseases
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes
Immune System Diseases
Bone Diseases
Musculoskeletal Diseases
Metabolic Diseases
Zoledronic acid
Diphosphonates
Bone Density Conservation Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs