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Antihypertensive Treatment of Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage-II (ATACH-II)

This study has been terminated.
(Planned interim analysis: no significant outcome differences between groups)
Sponsor:
Collaborators:
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)
Medical University of South Carolina
Johns Hopkins University
University of Michigan
Neurocritical Care Research Network
National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center
Japan Cardiovascular Research Foundation
Beijing Tiantan Hospital
China Medical University Hospital
University Hospital Heidelberg
Seoul National University Hospital
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
University of Minnesota - Clinical and Translational Science Institute
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT01176565
First received: August 4, 2010
Last updated: March 13, 2017
Last verified: March 2017
  Purpose

The specific aims of this study are to:

  1. Definitively determine the therapeutic benefit of the intensive treatment relative to the standard treatment in the proportion of patients with death and disability (mRS 4-6) at 3 months among subjects with ICH who are treated within 4.5 hours of symptom onset.
  2. Evaluate the therapeutic benefit of the intensive treatment relative to the standard treatment in the subjects' quality of life as measured by EuroQol at 3 months.
  3. Evaluate the therapeutic benefit of the intensive treatment relative to the standard treatment in the proportion of hematoma expansion (defined as increase from baseline hematoma volume of at least 33%) and in the change from baseline peri-hematoma volume at 24 hours on the serial computed tomographic (CT) scans.
  4. Assess the safety of the intensive treatment relative to the standard treatment in the proportion of subjects with treatment-related serious adverse events (SAEs) within 72 hours.

Condition Intervention Phase
Intracerebral Hemorrhage Drug: Intravenous nicardipine hydrochloride Phase 3

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Intervention Model Description:
Eligible patients are randomized 1:1 via computer-generated treatment assignment within 4.5 hours of neurological symptom onset to either standard or intensive SBP management using intravenous nicardipine hydrochloride as the primary BP control agent through 24 hours from randomization. Enrolled patients from both treatment arms are otherwise treated similarly after 24 hours, according to their medical needs. Standards of care management for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage published in the 2010 American Heart Association guidelines are incorporated in to the study protocol. All enrolled patients are followed through 90 days (± 14 days per protocol window; up to ± 30 days data is used) unless death or withdrawal occurs sooner. Primary analysis based on intent-to-treat (ITT) principles.
Masking: Investigator, Outcomes Assessor
Masking Description:
The trial intervention is conducted open-label to avoid concealing clinically necessary patient blood pressure and intravenous drug administration information. Clinical data including SBP values are primarily taken from entries recorded in to the patient's official medical record by hospital staff and are independently monitor-verified. Assessors for the primary outcome (mRS) at 90 days are are unaware of the treatment assignment or in-hospital clinical course of the subjects assessed. De-identified imaging studies are coded independently of subject number so the central imaging reader is unaware of the treatment assignment, clinical findings, or time points of image acquisition for data recorded from imaging. The study (lead) principal investigator and leadership committee members are unable to associate the treatment assignment of subjects to their outcomes or adverse events for purposes of trial decision-making. Adverse events are adjudicated by an independent oversight committee.
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Antihypertensive Treatment of Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage (ATACH)-II: A Phase III Randomized Multicenter Clinical Trial of Blood Pressure Reduction for Hypertension in Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by University of Minnesota - Clinical and Translational Science Institute:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Death or Disability According to Modified Rankin Scale Score at 90 Days (3 Months) From Randomization [ Time Frame: 90 days (± 14 days per protocol window; up to ± 30 days data is used) from randomization ]
    The primary outcome was death or disability, defined by modified Rankin scale (mRS) of 4-6 at 90 days following treatment. The modified Rankin Scale score ranges from 0, indicating no symptoms, to 6, indicating death. A score of 4 indicates moderately severe disability including the inability to walk or attend to one's own bodily needs. A score of 5 indicates severe disability; bedridden, incontinent, and requiring constant nursing care. To score a 3 or lower on the mRS, a person must at least be able to walk without the assistance of another person. We chose the mRS because of its high inter-observer reliability, superiority to other indices, and consistency with previous trials in patients with ICH. Reliability was further increased by use of a structured interview template and by requiring mRS assessors to pass a certification test. Persons conducting the 90-day mRS assessment were to be unaware of the treatment arm or clinical course of the patients they assessed.


Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Quality of Life at 90 Days Using EuroQol (EQ) Measures: EQ-5D (EuroQol Five Dimension), Consisting of Standardized EQ-5D-3L (EuroQol Five Dimension, Three-Level) Questionnaire and EQ VAS (EuroQol Visual Analog Scale) Scores [ Time Frame: 90 days (± 14 days per protocol window; up to ± 30 days data is used) from randomization ]
    Standardized scales developed by the EuroQol Research Foundation were used as a secondary outcome measure in addition to the mRS scale score. The EQ-5D is a simple, standardized non-disease-specific instrument for describing and valuating health-related quality of life. The EQ-5D-3L questionnaire consists of 5 questions in 5 different domains and allows for responses from 1 (the best outcome) to 3 (the worst outcome) in each of five categories (mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression). Total scores range from 5 to 15, with lower scores indicating better quality of life and a higher score indicating a worse quality of life. A second component of EuroQol outcome measurements is a printed 20 cm visual analogue scale (EQ VAS) that appears somewhat like a thermometer, on which a score from 0 (worst imaginable health state or death) to 100 (best imaginable health state) is marked by the patient (or, when necessary, their proxy) with the scale in view.

  • Hematoma Expansion (Number of Patients With Hematoma Expansion of 33% or Greater Between the Baseline and 24 +/- 6 Hours Head CTs, as Measured by the Central Reader for Patients With Readable Scans for Both Time Points Submitted by Data Lock.) [ Time Frame: From the baseline head CT to the 24 +/- 6 hours from randomization head CT ]
    Hematoma expansion as determined by serial CT scans: Hematoma expansion was defined as an increase in the volume of intraparenchymal hemorrhage of 33% or greater as measured by a central imaging analyst who was was unaware of the treatment assignments, clinical findings, and time points of image acquisition. The area of the hematoma was delineated by image analysis software with the use of density thresholds on each slice, followed by manual correction. To ensure accuracy and consistency of the readings, images were coded randomly and independently of subject numbers and manual correction was also done without awareness of treatment assignments, clinical findings, or time points of image acquisition. This data point is defined as being present (hematoma expansion of 33% or more was calculated between the baseline scan hematoma volume and the 24 +/- 6 hours hematoma volume measures at data analysis), meaning that hematoma expansion as defined must have occurred or it was not counted.


Other Outcome Measures:
  • Neurological Deterioration Within 24 Hours, Defined by a Decrease of 2 or More Points on the GCS Score or an Increase of 4 or More Points on the NIHSS Score From Baseline, Not Related to Sedation or Hypnotic-agent Use and Sustained for at Least 8 Hours. [ Time Frame: From randomization through the 24-hour treatment period ]
    Neurologic deterioration was measured using two scales. The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score measures of level of consciousness in eye, motor, and verbal components. At least one point is given in each category. The scale ranges from 3 to 15, with 3 indicating deep unconsciousness and 15 indicating consciousness is not impaired. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) quantifies neurologic deficits in 11 categories. Level of consciousness, horizontal eye movement, visual fields, facial palsy, movement in each limb, sensation, language & speech, and extinction or inattention on one side of the body are tested. Scores range from 0 to 42, with 0 indicating normal function and higher scores indicating greater deficit severity. Neurological status was checked per ICU standards through 24 hours, recommended as hourly GCS and full assessment every 2 hours. NIHSS assessment at baseline and 24 +/- 3 hours was pre-specified. Assessments were added for suspected neurological change.

  • Hypotension Within 72 Hours [ Time Frame: From randomization through 72 hours from randomization ]
    Hypotension (abnormally low blood pressure) was the most likely adverse event that could be associated with the study treatment, and is the primary basis (risk) on which neurological deterioration or other untoward effects of the study treatment could occur. It is therefore examined as a numerically-measured occurrence in addition to monitoring patients closely for neurological deterioration or other symptoms. Hypotension, when named as an adverse event, was defined as the syndrome of low blood pressure with SBP < 85 mmHg. Instances of hypotension were to be avoided through close monitoring, and administration of fluid bolus for SBP < 110 mmHg. If hypotension did occur, it was to be reversed as quickly as possible through discontinuation of intravenous nicardipine and intravenous fluid administration, which can be accomplished readily in a variety of settings where patients with intracerebral hemorrhage are routinely housed during early hospitalization.

  • Treatment-related Serious Adverse Event Within 72 Hours of Randomization [ Time Frame: From randomization through 72 hours (3 days) ]
    Adverse events (AEs) and serious adverse events (SAEs) were assessed by the site investigators for all patients, including for their potential relatedness to the study treatment. An Independent Oversight Committee (IOC) reviewed and adjudicated all adverse event data. The 72-hours-from-randomization time window was considered the most likely time frame during which treatment-related adverse events or serious adverse events would be observed. Terminology from the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) and severity criteria from the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE v. 4.03) were used as a basis for reporting adverse events. Serious adverse events are defined as being fatal, life-threatening, resulting in hospitalization or prolonged hospitalization, resulting in disability or congenital anomaly, or requiring intervention to prevent permanent impairment or damage and were required to be reported promptly.

  • Any Serious Adverse Event Within the 90-day Study Period [ Time Frame: From randomization through the 90 day visit (90 ± 14 days per protocol window; up to ± 30 days data is used) or until known death, withdrawal, or loss to follow-up. ]
    The complete count of all subjects who experienced any serious adverse events throughout their participation in the trial was included in this tabulation. Adverse events (AEs) and serious adverse events (SAEs) were assessed by the site investigators for all patients. Potential relatedness to the study treatment was a required reporting element for all adverse events but was not considered in this count. Terminology from the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) and severity criteria from the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE v. 4.03) were used as a basis for reporting adverse events. Serious adverse events are defined as being fatal, life-threatening, resulting in hospitalization or prolonged hospitalization, resulting in disability or congenital anomaly, or requiring intervention to prevent permanent impairment or damage and were required to be reported promptly. An Independent Oversight Committee (IOC) reviewed and adjudicated adverse event data.


Enrollment: 1000
Actual Study Start Date: May 15, 2011
Study Completion Date: March 8, 2016
Primary Completion Date: December 21, 2015 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Active Comparator: Standard SBP Reduction Arm

Intravenous nicardipine hydrochloride will be used as necessary (pro re nata or "PRN") as the primary agent in lowering SBP.

The goal for the standard BP reduction group will be to reduce and maintain SBP < 180 mmHg for 24 hours from randomization. 160 mmHg is the target SBP for this arm.

For the standard group, SBP below the assigned treatment range is not artificially elevated to stay within the range if lower SBP occurs with nicardipine turned off (no fluid bolus given unless SBP falls below 110 mmHg with nicardipine off and there is risk for hypotension). Euvolemic fluid maintenance is encouraged for all patients according to their medical needs, which may differ.

Drug: Intravenous nicardipine hydrochloride

IV nicardipine is initiated at a rate of 5 mg/hr, is continued, and is increased by 2.5 mg/hr increments every 15 min until the target SBP or maximum dose of 15 mg/hr is reached. If SBP is above the target SBP despite infusion of the maximum nicardipine dose for 30 minutes, a second agent may be used (Labetalol 5-20 mg IV bolus every 15 min; diltiazem/urapidil in countries without labetalol) for another hour. Nicardipine infusion is decreased incrementally or is stopped if SBP falls below the desired treatment range.

Fluid bolus for SBP still falling below 110 mmHG (millimeters of mercury) with nicardipine off is given to prevent organ hypoperfusion. Vasopressor agents are not used unless symptoms related to or possibly exacerbated by hypoperfusion are present.

Other Names:
  • Cardene® I.V.
  • Nicardipine HCl injection
  • nicardipine hydrochloride injection
  • nicardipine IV
  • nicardipine
  • nicardipine hydrochloride
Active Comparator: Intensive SBP Reduction Arm

Intravenous nicardipine hydrochloride will be used as necessary (pro re nata or "PRN") as the primary agent in lowering SBP.

The goal for the intensive BP reduction group will be to reduce and maintain SBP < 140 mmHg for 24 hours from randomization. 125 mmHg is the target SBP for this arm.

For the intensive group, SBP falling below 110 mmHg (lower limit of the assigned treatment range) with nicardipine off is treated with normal saline fluid bolus to prevent or remedy hypotension. Euvolemic fluid maintenance is encouraged for all patients according to their medical needs, which may differ.

Drug: Intravenous nicardipine hydrochloride

IV nicardipine is initiated at a rate of 5 mg/hr, is continued, and is increased by 2.5 mg/hr increments every 15 min until the target SBP or maximum dose of 15 mg/hr is reached. If SBP is above the target SBP despite infusion of the maximum nicardipine dose for 30 minutes, a second agent may be used (Labetalol 5-20 mg IV bolus every 15 min; diltiazem/urapidil in countries without labetalol) for another hour. Nicardipine infusion is decreased incrementally or is stopped if SBP falls below the desired treatment range.

Fluid bolus for SBP still falling below 110 mmHG (millimeters of mercury) with nicardipine off is given to prevent organ hypoperfusion. Vasopressor agents are not used unless symptoms related to or possibly exacerbated by hypoperfusion are present.

Other Names:
  • Cardene® I.V.
  • Nicardipine HCl injection
  • nicardipine hydrochloride injection
  • nicardipine IV
  • nicardipine
  • nicardipine hydrochloride

Detailed Description:
The report from a National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Workshop on priorities for clinical research in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in December 2003 recommended clinical trials for evaluation of blood pressure (BP) management in acute ICH as a leading priority. The Special Writing Group of the Stroke Council of the American Heart Association in 1999 and 2007 emphasized the need for clinical trials to ensure evidence-based treatment of acute hypertension in ICH. Consequently, we propose to conduct a five-year international, multicenter, open-labeled, randomized, controlled, Phase III trial to determine the efficacy of early, intensive antihypertensive treatment using intravenous nicardipine for acute hypertension in subjects with co-morbid hypertension and spontaneous supratentorial ICH. The primary hypothesis of this large, streamlined, focused trial is that the group treated with intensive BP reduction (systolic BP [SBP] of 140 mmHg or less - hereafter referred to as the intensive treatment) using intravenous nicardipine infusion for 24 hours reduces the proportion of death and disability at 3 months by 10% or greater compared with the group treated with the standard BP reduction (SBP of 180 mmHg or less - hereafter referred to as the standard treatment) among patients with ICH treated within 4.5 hours of symptom onset. The underlying mechanism for this expected beneficial effect of intensive treatment is mediated through reduction of the rate and magnitude of hematoma expansion observed in approximately 38% of patients with acute ICH. The trial will recruit a maximum of 1,280 subjects with ICH who meet the eligibility criteria. The primary outcome is the proportion of death and disability at 3 months defined by modified Rankin scale (mRS) score of 4 to 6. The proposed clinical trial is the natural extension of numerous case series, a subsequent pilot trial funded by the National Institutes of Health National Institute of Health (NIH), and a preliminary randomized controlled trial in this patient group funded by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council, that have recently confirmed the safety and tolerability of both the regimen and goals of the antihypertensive treatment in acutely hypertensive patients with ICH proposed in the present trial. The proposed trial will have important public health implications by providing necessary information regarding the efficacy and safety of antihypertensive treatment of acute hypertension observed in up to 75% of the subjects with ICH. BP treatment represents a strategy that can be made widely available without the need of specialized equipment and personnel and therefore can make a major impact upon outcome in patients with ICH. Substantial reduction in morbidity and mortality appears possible if the estimates of treatment effect sizes from current pilot trials are accurate.
  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Age 18 years or older
  • IV nicardipine can be initiated within 4.5 hours of symptom onset.
  • Clinical signs consistent with the diagnosis of stroke, including impairment of language, motor function, cognition, and/or gaze, vision, or neglect.
  • Total Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score (aggregate of verbal, eye, and motor response scores) of 5 or greater at time of emergency department (ED) arrival.
  • International normalized ratio (INR) value < 1.5
  • CT scan demonstrates intraparenchymal hematoma with manual hematoma volume measurement <60 cc.
  • For subjects randomized prior to IV antihypertensive administration: SBP greater than 180 mmHg* prior to IV antihypertensive treatment (this includes pre-hospital treatment) AND WITHOUT spontaneous SBP reduction to below 180 mmHg at the time of randomization OR
  • For subjects randomized after IV antihypertensive administration: SBP greater than 180 mmHg* prior to IV antihypertensive treatment (this includes pre-hospital treatment) AND WITHOUT SBP reduction to below 140 mmHg at the time of randomization.
  • Informed consent obtained by subject, legally authorized representative, or next of kin.

    • Notes: The unit "mmHg" stands for "millimeters of mercury", a standard way of measuring blood pressure. Patients with SBP < 180 mmHg should be monitored for 4.5 hours from symptom onset as their SBP may rise to eligible levels before the eligibility window closes.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • ICH is due to previously known neoplasms, arteriovenous malformation (AVM), or aneurysms.
  • Intracerebral hematoma considered to be related to trauma.
  • ICH located in infratentorial regions such as pons or cerebellum.
  • Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) associated with intraparenchymal hemorrhage and blood completely fills one lateral ventricle or more than half of both ventricles.
  • Patient to receive immediate surgical evacuation.
  • Current pregnancy, or parturition within previous 30 days, or active lactation.
  • Use of dabigatran within the last 48 hours**.
  • A platelet count less than 50,000 per microliter (µL or mm3)
  • Known sensitivity to nicardipine.
  • Pre-morbid disability requiring assistance in ambulation or activities of daily living.
  • Subject's living will precludes aggressive ICU management.
  • Subject is currently participating in another interventional clinical trial

    • Use of dabigatran was clarified through investigator presentations, educational materials, and clinical tools to include newer similar class medications (such as rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban) that were being developed and in various stages of approval across enrolling countries through the course of this trial, in the event that patients using these medications may have been encountered during screening.
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01176565

  Show 171 Study Locations
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Minnesota - Clinical and Translational Science Institute
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)
Medical University of South Carolina
Johns Hopkins University
University of Michigan
Neurocritical Care Research Network
National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center
Japan Cardiovascular Research Foundation
Beijing Tiantan Hospital
China Medical University Hospital
University Hospital Heidelberg
Seoul National University Hospital
Investigators
Study Chair: Adnan I Qureshi, MD University of Minnesota - Clinical and Translational Science Institute
Study Director: Yuko Y Palesch, PhD Medical University of South Carolina
Principal Investigator: Adnan I Qureshi, MD University of Minnesota - Clinical and Translational Science Institute
Principal Investigator: Yuko Y Palesch, PhD Medical University of South Carolina
  More Information

Additional Information:
Publications:

Study Data/Documents: Study Protocol  This link exits the ClinicalTrials.gov site
Identifier: Protocol

Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
Responsible Party: University of Minnesota - Clinical and Translational Science Institute
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01176565     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 1207M17921
U01NS062091 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
U01NS061861 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
U01NS059041 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
U01NS056975 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
H23-4-3 ( Other Grant/Funding Number: Intramural Research Fund for Cardiovascular Diseases of the National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Japan )
Study First Received: August 4, 2010
Results First Received: January 1, 2017
Last Updated: March 13, 2017
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: Yes
Plan Description: A public use data set from the study database will be made available. A process for sharing subject head imaging studies that may be associated with the data set is under evaluation.

Keywords provided by University of Minnesota - Clinical and Translational Science Institute:
Acute hypertensive response
intracerebral hemorrhage
blood pressure
outcome
nicardipine

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Hemorrhage
Cerebral Hemorrhage
Pathologic Processes
Intracranial Hemorrhages
Cerebrovascular Disorders
Brain Diseases
Central Nervous System Diseases
Nervous System Diseases
Vascular Diseases
Cardiovascular Diseases
Antihypertensive Agents
Nicardipine
Calcium Channel Blockers
Membrane Transport Modulators
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Vasodilator Agents

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on July 25, 2017