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Developmental Delay in Children Exposed During Pregnancy to Either Lamotrigine,Sodium Valproate, or Carbamazepine

The recruitment status of this study is unknown. The completion date has passed and the status has not been verified in more than two years.
Verified March 2010 by Massachusetts General Hospital.
Recruitment status was:  Active, not recruiting
Information provided by:
Massachusetts General Hospital Identifier:
First received: March 31, 2010
Last updated: NA
Last verified: March 2010
History: No changes posted

This study is investigating the neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal exposure to lamotrigine (LTG), sodium valproate (VPA), or carbamazepine (CBZ) monotherapies. The hypotheses to be tested include:

  1. Exposure during pregnancy to CBZ, LTG, and VPA, each as monotherapy, is associated with developmental delay with or without signs of autism.
  2. Exposure to each drug (CBZ, LTG, and VPA) as monotherapy is associated with an increased rate of occurrence of major malformations.
  3. The child with major malformations is more likely to have developmental delay with or without signs of autism than the child who does not have major malformations.
  4. The occurrence of adaptive behavior outcomes will show a dose-response relationship with the dose of medication taken by the mother in the first trimester.

The study population includes children 36-83 months of age who were exposed throughout gestation to one of the three drugs of interest, as treatment for maternal seizure disorder.

Developmental Delay
Birth Defects

Study Type: Observational
Study Design: Observational Model: Cohort
Time Perspective: Prospective
Official Title: Developmental Delay in Children Exposed During Pregnancy to Either Lamotrigine, Sodium Valproate, or Carbamazepine

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by Massachusetts General Hospital:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Adaptive Behavior Scores [ Time Frame: 36-83 months of age ]
    Measures of each child's Adaptive Behavior scores as assessed by the Vineland-II Adaptive Behavior Scales, collected when the child was between 36 and 83 months of age.

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Presence/Absence of Major Malformations [ Time Frame: 36-83 months of age ]
    Based on interview with mother and review of medical records, determination is made as to whether or not the child had any major malformations at birth.

Enrollment: 298
Study Start Date: March 2005
Estimated Study Completion Date: September 2010
Primary Completion Date: January 2010 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Children exposed to LTG during pregnancy.
Children exposed to VPA during pregnancy.
Children exposed to CBZ during pregnancy.


Ages Eligible for Study:   36 Months to 83 Months   (Child)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Sampling Method:   Non-Probability Sample
Study Population
Children 36-83 months of age, prenatally exposed to LTG, VPA, or CBZ monotherapies, recruited through mothers enrolled in the North American Antiepileptic Drug Pregnancy Registry.

Inclusion Criteria:

  • 36-83 months of age
  • Prenatal exposure to LTG, VPA, or CBZ monotherapy
  • AED was used by mother to suppress seizures
  • Mother was enrolled in the North American AED Pregnancy Registry

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Exposure during the first trimester to other known teratogens.
  • Mother with mental health issues
  • Refusal to release medical records to confirm eligibility.
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Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT01097720

United States, Massachusetts
Massachusetts General Hospital
Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02114
Sponsors and Collaborators
Massachusetts General Hospital
Principal Investigator: Lewis B. Holmes, MD Massachusetts General Hospital
Study Director: Jane Adams, Ph.D. University of Massachusetts, Boston
  More Information

Responsible Party: Lewis B. Holmes, MD, Massachusetts General Hospital Identifier: NCT01097720     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 2005P000379
Study First Received: March 31, 2010
Last Updated: March 31, 2010

Keywords provided by Massachusetts General Hospital:
Developmental Delay

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Congenital Abnormalities
Valproic Acid
Antimanic Agents
Tranquilizing Agents
Central Nervous System Depressants
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Psychotropic Drugs
Analgesics, Non-Narcotic
Sensory System Agents
Peripheral Nervous System Agents
Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inducers
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inducers
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Calcium Channel Blockers
Membrane Transport Modulators
Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists
Excitatory Amino Acid Agents
Neurotransmitter Agents
Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Blockers
Sodium Channel Blockers
Enzyme Inhibitors
GABA Agents processed this record on April 28, 2017