Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibition and Immune Function in HIV (DPPIVinHIV)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT01093651
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : March 26, 2010
Results First Posted : January 23, 2014
Last Update Posted : February 17, 2014
The Campbell Foundation
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Kevin Yarasheski, PhD, Washington University School of Medicine

Brief Summary:
We will test the safety of a new class of anti-diabetes compounds (DPPIV-inhibitors) in people living with HIV. Future trials will examine efficacy for treating diabetes and reducing cardiovascular disease risk in people living with HIV.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Diabetes Insulin Resistance Drug: Sitagliptin Drug: Placebo Phase 2 Phase 3

Detailed Description:
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infection and treatment with antiretroviral therapies are associated with several cardiometabolic risk factors; insulin resistance, diabetes, dyslipidemia, central adiposity, that increase risk for MI and stroke. A new class of drugs used to treat type 2 diabetes has been introduced; Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPPIV)-inhibitors (Januvia®, Onglyza®, alogliptin). Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPPIV)-inhibition could be a safe and effective therapy for HIV-associated insulin resistance and diabetes. However, no safety data exist. The research question is: If HIV+ adults with stable immunologic (CD4+ T-cell count >350 cells/μL) and virologic (plasma HIV RNA <50 copies/mL) function are given a DPPIV-inhibitor would their CD4+ T-cell count and plasma HIV RNA level increase, decrease, or stay the same? Theoretically, DPPIV-inhibition could enhance their immune system by increasing SDF-1α levels; a potent inhibitor of HIV-entry into T-cells, or harm the HIV+ immune system by inactivating CD26 on immune cells. We hypothesize that DPPIV-inhibition will not harm the immune system in HIV+ people. We propose a blinded randomized controlled pilot safety trial of an FDA-approved DPPIV-inhibitor in virologically- and immunologically-stable HIV+ men and women. We will monitor CD4+ T-cell count, plasma HIV RNA levels, immune activation markers, and safety outcomes (lipid/lipoprotein profiles, blood pressure, kidney and liver function) during 4-6 months of DPPIV-inhibitor exposure vs placebo in 20 HIV+ adults. If safety is confirmed, the efficacy of DPPIV-inhibition in HIV+ with insulin resistance will be tested in future trials that examine potential glucoregulatory and cardiovascular benefits.

Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 20 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double (Participant, Investigator)
Official Title: A Blinded Randomized Controlled Pilot Immunologic and Virologic Safety Trial of an FDA-approved DPPIV-inhibitor in HIV+ Men and Women
Study Start Date : June 2010
Actual Primary Completion Date : June 2011
Actual Study Completion Date : June 2012

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: HIV/AIDS

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: DPPIV inhibition
Four to six months of sitagliptin administration (100mg/d) to people living with HIV-1 who have well-controlled immunologic (CD4+ T-cell count >350 cells/µL) and virologic (plasma HIV RNA <50 copies/mL) status.
Drug: Sitagliptin
100 mg sitagliptin daily for 4-6 months

Placebo Comparator: Placebo
Four to six months of placebo to people living with HIV-1 who have well-controlled immunologic (CD4+ T-cell count >350 cells/µL) and virologic (plasma HIV RNA <50 copies/mL) status.
Drug: Placebo
Daily placebo for 4-6 months

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. CD4+ T-cell Count [ Time Frame: Monthly for 4 months ]
  2. Plasma HIV Viremia (Viral Load) [ Time Frame: Monthly for 6 months ]
    Percentage of participants with plasma HIV RNA copy number less than 48 copies/mL

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Soluble TNFR2; Serum Biomarkers of Immune Activation [ Time Frame: Baseline, week 8, week 16 ]
    serum soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-2 concentration

  2. SDF1α; Serum Biomarkers of Immune Activation [ Time Frame: Baseline, week 8, week 16 ]
    serum stromal cell-derived factor-1α concentration

  3. RANTES; Serum Biomarkers of Immune Activation [ Time Frame: Baseline, week 8, week 16 ]
    serum Regulated on Activation, Normal T cell Expressed and Secreted concentration

  4. Oral Glucose Tolerance [ Time Frame: Baseline, week 8, week 16 ]
    Area under the 75-gr oral glucose tolerance curve (AUCg) based on plasma glucose values measured at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 mins post-glucose challenge.

  5. Self-reported Symptoms [ Time Frame: Monthly for 4 months ]
    Cumulative number of self-reported symptoms based on the Division of AIDS Grading Scale for the Severity of Adult Adverse Events (0-4 scale where 0 is no new symptoms, 4 is serious adverse event or toxicity)

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 65 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. Thirty 18-65 yr old HIV-infected men and women (with source documentation of HIV status) who are stable on any antiretroviral therapy (cART) regimen
  2. Have stable (at least the past 12-months) immunologic (>350 CD4+ T-cells/µL) and virologic (<50 copies HIV RNA/mL) status.
  3. BMI 18-42kg/m2;
  4. Normal blood chemistry for at least 1 month prior to enrollment;
  5. Platelet count > 30,000/mm3, absolute neutrophil count >750/mm3, transaminases < 2.5x the upper limit of normal (ULN).
  6. Long-term non-progressors (not on ART) are not eligible.

Exclusion Criteria:

  1. CD4+ T-cell count <350 cells/µL or detectable plasma HIV RNA (>50 copies HIV RNA/mL) within the past 12-months. During the study, if CD4+ T-cell count declines by >100 cells/µL, or if plasma HIV RNA becomes detectable (>50 copies HIV RNA/mL after repeat analysis 2wks apart), and the participant denies any lapse in their anti-HIV medication regimen, the study medication will be stopped and an adverse event documented. If at any time during the study, two participants experience a reduction in T-cell count >100 cells/µL, or their plasma HIV RNA levels become detectable (>50 copies HIV RNA/mL after repeat analysis 2wks apart), and they are confirmed (by unblinding) to have received sitagliptin, the study will be stopped for serious safety concerns.
  2. Systemic, secondary or opportunistic infection within past 12-months.
  3. Fasting glucose intolerance (FBG >100mg/dL), fasting hyperinsulinemia (>15µU/mL), or fasting insulin resistance (Homeostasis model for insulin resistance (HOMA) >3.0). Any agents that might alter glucose metabolism (insulin, TZDs, metformin, glucocorticoids, sulfonylurea, corticosteroids, megace, rhGH, GH-secretagogue) during the 3 months prior to enrollment or at any time during enrollment. Volunteers with T2DM, IDDM or diabetic ketoacidosis will not be enrolled.
  4. History of serious CV disease or NYHA Functional Class III or IV, (e.g., recent MI, unstable angina, edema, CHF, CAD, CABG, valve disease (murmur), stroke, uncontrolled high blood pressure (resting >160/95 mmHg), irregular heart rhythm, resting ST-segment depression >1mm). Treatment with medications for a CV condition (cardiac glycosides α- or ß-blockers). Some antihypertensive medications (calcium-channel blocker, diuretic, angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB), angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE)) will be permitted.
  5. Moderate to severe renal insufficiency. Serum creatinine >1.7 mg/dL (men) >1.5 mg/dL (women).
  6. Known allergy or hypersensitivity to DPPIV-inhibitors.
  7. Plan to change anti-HIV medication regimen or prophylaxis for opportunistic infection within 6-months of starting study.Transitions among efavirenz-based regimens will be allowed (e.g., Efavirenz + lamivudine + zidovudine (combivir) to Efavirenz + emtricitabine + tenofovir (Atripla)).
  8. Lipid-lowering medications are permitted (fibrate or statin or niacin), but must be stable on that agent for at least 3 months prior to enrollment. Lipid-lowering agents cannot be started during the treatment period.
  9. Chronic hepatitis B infection (HB surface antigen positive). Active hepatitis C infection (detectable Hep C RNA). Those who have cleared hepatitis B or C infection are eligible.
  10. Hematocrit <34% in men or <25% in women with symptoms (fatigue, "tired-legs", shortness of breath). Hemoglobin <10 gm/100ml with symptoms.
  11. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea (>4 loose stools/day) that are unresponsive to treatment. History of eating disorder or significant GI-disease.
  12. Pregnant or nursing mothers. Women must agree to use an acceptable form of birth control during the study. If birth control pills are used, the woman must be stable on these medications for at least 6 months prior to enrollment.
  13. Active malignancy or treatment with chemotherapeutic agents or radiation therapy (within past 12 months).
  14. >10% unintentional body weight loss during the 12 months prior to enrollment.
  15. "Blinded" investigational drugs/medications during the 3 months prior to enrollment that will not be unblinded before enrollment. Open-label investigational drugs are permitted (within past 3 months, no plan to stop during enrollment and not known to affect glucose, lipid, adipose tissue or liver metabolism).
  16. Over the counter agents that might alter glucose, lipid, or adipose tissue metabolism (e.g., creatine monohydrate, chromium picolinate, amino acid/protein supplements, medium- or long-chain fatty acids) within 1 month of enrollment. These supplements are not permitted during the treatment period.
  17. Reduced cognitive function/unable to provide voluntary informed consent. Prisoners are excluded.
  18. Active substance abuse that the physician-scientist believes may compromise safety, compliance, or interfere with study drug or data interpretation.
  19. Any cytokine or anti-cytokine therapy during 3 months prior to enrollment.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT01093651

United States, Missouri
Washington University School of Medicine
Saint Louis, Missouri, United States, 63110
Sponsors and Collaborators
Washington University School of Medicine
The Campbell Foundation
Principal Investigator: Kevin E Yarasheski, PhD Washington University School of Medicine

Additional Information:
Publications of Results:
Goodwin SR, Reeds DN, Royal M, Struthers H, Laciny E, Yarasheski KE. Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Inhibition Does Not Adversely Affect Immune and Virologic Status of HIV+ Men and Women. Diabetes. 2012;61(Suppl 1) A237 (abstract # 932-P).

Responsible Party: Kevin Yarasheski, PhD, Professor of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine Identifier: NCT01093651     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: KEY03222010
First Posted: March 26, 2010    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: January 23, 2014
Last Update Posted: February 17, 2014
Last Verified: January 2014

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Insulin Resistance
Glucose Metabolism Disorders
Metabolic Diseases
Sitagliptin Phosphate
Hypoglycemic Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists
Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors
Protease Inhibitors
Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action