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HIV Protease Inhibitors for the Prevention of Malaria in Ugandan Children (PROMOTE-PEDS)

This study has been completed.
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
University of California, San Francisco Identifier:
First received: September 14, 2009
Last updated: October 9, 2013
Last verified: October 2013

HIV and malaria are major causes of morbidity and mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa and children bear the greatest brunt of both diseases. No single existing intervention is likely to control malaria in Africa. Rather, improvements in malaria prevention are likely to come from strategies that employ multiple proven interventions targeting different populations. HIV-infected children represent one of the most vulnerable subpopulations in these countries. It is possible that the use of protease inhibitor (PI) - based antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected children living in areas of high malaria transmission could prevent malaria in this vulnerable population. An effective remedy that offers the possibility to further reduce malaria risk, such as PIs, is highly desirable. This study will determine whether a PI based ART regimen will reduce malaria among children living in a malaria endemic area of Uganda and receiving insecticide-treated bed nets (ITN) and TS. This study will compare two different ART regimens. Children enrolled in the study will start or continue to receive either standard Ugandan first line treatment ART regimen (NNRTI+2 NRTIs) or an ART regimen containing the HIV protease inhibitor (lopinavir/ritonavir +2 NRTIs) and followed for a period of 24 months.

Condition Intervention Phase
HIV Infections
Drug: LPV/r + 2 NRTIs
Drug: NVP or EFV + 2 NRTIs
Phase 3

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: A Randomized Open Label Trial of HIV Protease Inhibitors for the Prevention of Malaria in HIV-Infected Children

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by University of California, San Francisco:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Incidence-density of malaria defined as the number of incident episodes of malaria per time at risk. [ Time Frame: Time from randomization to at least 24 months of follow up or until end of the study ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Incidence of any adverse events, defined as severity grade 2 or higher that are possibly, probably or definitely related to study drugs [ Time Frame: Time of randomization to at least 24 months or the end of the study ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
  • To compare the virologic efficacy of LPV/r versus NNRTI-based ART in HIV-infected children, we will test for non-inferiority in the proportion of children who achieve HIV viral RNA suppression at 48 weeks [ Time Frame: Time of randomization to up to 24 months or end of study ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • To compare immunologic efficacy of LPV/r versus NNRTI-based ART, we will test for non-inferiority in the change from baseline CD4 cell count and % at 2 time points; 48 and 96 weeks. [ Time Frame: Time of randomization to up to 24 months or end of study ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • To assess the association between nutritional status and HIV-related outcomes, including ART levels [ Time Frame: Time of randomization to up to 24 months or end of study ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

Enrollment: 186
Study Start Date: September 2009
Study Completion Date: January 2013
Primary Completion Date: January 2013 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Group 1
LPV/r + 2 NRTIs
Drug: LPV/r + 2 NRTIs

Group 1

Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) +2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)

The same NRTI choice strategy will be used for both arms. Lamivudine will be used with all children. The second NRTI will be zidovudine unless the participant has a hemoglobin < 8 gm/dL, in which case it will be Abacavir. Stavudine will be used in the event that a participant is unable to take Abacavir for safety or other reasons.

Active Comparator: Group 2
NVP or EFV + 2 NRTIs
Drug: NVP or EFV + 2 NRTIs

Group 2

Nevirapine (NVP) or Efavirenz (EFV) + 2 NRTI

NVP will be used for children < 3 years of age and EFV for children ≥3 years of age. The same NRTI choice strategy will be used for both arms. Lamivudine will be used with all children. The second NRTI will be zidovudine unless the participant has a hemoglobin < 8 gm/dL, in which case it will be stavudine.

Detailed Description:

This is an open label, single site, randomized clinical trial comparing PI-based ART to NNRTI-based ART for the prevention of malaria in HIV-infected children. The two ART drug regimens that will be used include: Treatment arm 1. LPV/r + 2 NRTIs and Treatment arm 2. NVP or EFV + 2 NRTIs. The study is designed to test the hypothesis that children receiving a PI-based ART regimen will have lower the incidence of malaria compared to children receiving an NNRTI- based ART regimen. The primary study endpoint of the study is malaria incidence.

The study site will be the Tororo District Hospital campus situated in Eastern Uganda, an area of high malaria transmission. Using convenience sampling, 300 HIV-infected children identified from the Tororo community aged 2 months to <11 years either eligible for ART-initiation or already receiving a first line ART regimen with HIV RNA<400 copies/ml will be evaluated for enrollment.

Eligible children will be randomized at enrollment to receive either a PI- based or an NNRTI-based ART regimen. At enrollment, all study participants will receive a long lasting ITN as part of a basic care package including a safe water vessel and multivitamins and given TS chemoprophylaxis, as per current standard of care for HIV-infected children in Uganda. On the day of ART initiation, patients will be counseled about the importance of adherence to ART and possible ART related toxicities. After 2 weeks, patients will be seen to assess adherence and toxicity to study medications by interview and clinical examination. Apart from this visit at week 2, patients will be seen at 4 week intervals timed from ART-initiation. Assessment of adherence will also be done for TS prophylaxis, ITN use and ART. Assessment of adherence to ART will be done by self report of missed doses and pill counts.

Participants will receive all routine and acute medical care at a designated study clinic open 7 days a week from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Parents/guardians will be asked to bring their child to the study clinic for all medical care. If after hours, they will be instructed to bring them to Tororo District Hospital premises (where the study clinic is located) and request that the study physician on-call be contacted. They will be followed for at least 24 months and up to 3 years. They will be seen monthly for routine assessments with laboratory evaluations done at every 3 months. At these visits, the study protocol will be reinforced with discussion regarding the need to come to the study clinic promptly upon the onset of any illness and to avoid use of outside medications. Study participants will also be followed closely for adverse events potentially due to study drugs and for malaria and HIV treatment outcomes. During the follow-up period, all patients presenting to the clinic with a new episode of fever will undergo standard evaluation (history, physical examination) and Giemsa-stained blood smear for the diagnosis of malaria.


Ages Eligible for Study:   2 Months to 10 Years
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes

Inclusion criteria:

  1. Age 2 months to < 11 years
  2. Confirmed HIV diagnosis. i. Children > 18 months: Documentation of HIV status must come from two assays. Assays include DNA PCR, HIV RNA, Western blot, or rapid HIV antibody test ii. Children < 18 months: Documentation will be DNA PCR confirmation only along with documentation of testing from the referral entity
  3. ART-naïve patients eligible for ART initiation per WHO/Uganda guidelines (see Table 1) or Patients receiving first line ART regimen with NNRTI +2 NRTI with at least one HIV RNA <400 copies/ml within the past 6 months
  4. Agreement to come to the study clinic for any febrile episode or other illness
  5. Agreement to avoid medications administered outside study protocol
  6. Provision of informed consent by parent/guardian and agreement to have child's care at the clinical site
  7. Lives within 50 km of study site

Exclusion criteria:

  1. ART-naïve children: children or their mothers that have received any dose of Nevirapine in the past 24 months
  2. Active medical problem requiring in-patient evaluation at the time of screening or enrollment
  3. History of cardiac conduction disorder or known significant cardiac structural defect
  4. Children receiving any disallowed medications (see section 4.3)
  5. Moderate, Severe or Life-threatening (Grade 2, 3, or 4) AST or ALT found within 4 weeks prior to enrollment:

    • AST: >113U/L (>2.5xULN)
    • ALT: >113U/L (>2.5xULN)
  6. Life-threatening (Grade 4) screening laboratory value found within 4 weeks prior to enrollment for the following:

    • Absolute neutrophil count: <500 mm3
    • Hemoglobin: <6.5 g/dL
    • Creatinine: >3.5xULN
    • Platelets: <25,000/mm3
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT00978068

IDRC - Tororo Research Clinic
Tororo, Uganda
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of California, San Francisco
Study Director: Diane V Havlir, MD University of California, San Francisco
Principal Investigator: Moses R Kamya MBChB, MMed, MPH Makerere University
Principal Investigator: Grant Dorsey, MD, PhD University of California, San Francisco
Principal Investigator: Ted Ruel, MD University of California, San Francisco
Principal Investigator: Jane Achan, MBChB, MPed Makerere University
  More Information

Additional Information:
Additional publications automatically indexed to this study by Identifier (NCT Number):
Responsible Party: University of California, San Francisco Identifier: NCT00978068     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: H5747-34097, NIH PO1 HD059454, 2009-114, HS-620, 551/ESR/NDA/DID-08/09, H5741-34097 and 10-00991
Study First Received: September 14, 2009
Last Updated: October 9, 2013
Health Authority: Uganda: National Drug Authority
Uganda: National Council for Science and Technology

Keywords provided by University of California, San Francisco:
Pediatric HIV

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Parasitic Diseases
Protozoan Infections
HIV Protease Inhibitors
Protease Inhibitors
Anti-HIV Agents
Anti-Infective Agents
Anti-Retroviral Agents
Antiviral Agents
Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Pharmacologic Actions
Therapeutic Uses processed this record on February 27, 2015