Anti-TNF Agents for the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
Autoimmunity Centers of Excellence
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00837434
First received: February 3, 2009
Last updated: April 10, 2015
Last verified: April 2015
  Purpose

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease that leads to inflammation and progressive joint damage. RA is a systemic inflammatory autoimmune disorder affecting almost 1% of the United States population. Current therapies target the immune system early in the disease process before joint damage occurs, and include drugs such as methotrexate (MTX) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-blocking agents. The primary purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of two TNF inhibitors, etanercept and adalimumab, on memory B lymphocytes (B-cells) in the peripheral blood of participants with RA.

Additionally, there are 4 optional sub-studies as part of the trial:

  • B-Cell Kinetic Sub-Study to look at changes in B-cell subsets over time and how quickly reductions in B-cell memory occur
  • Vaccine Response Sub-Study to assess B cell memory in response to immunization with hepatitis B,-hepatitis A, and diphtheria/tetanus vaccines, and to determine whether T-cell vaccine responses are altered with TNF blockade
  • Tonsil Biopsy Sub-Study to evaluate how TNF blockade affects memory B-cells in the tonsil dendritic cells and germinal cells
  • Synovial Biopsy Sub-Study to evaluate how TNF blockade affects changes in memory B-cells in lymphoid tissue.

Condition Intervention Phase
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Drug: Etanercept
Drug: Adalimumab
Phase 4

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Pharmacodynamics Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Single Blind (Investigator)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Partially Blinded, Randomized, Multi-Center, Phase IV Trial to Evaluate Mechanism of Action of Anti-TNF Agents in Rheumatoid Arthritis

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Percentage of CD27+ Switched Memory B Cells at Week 12 [ Time Frame: Week 12 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Analysis of the steady state composition of the B cell compartment were performed using ex-vivo multicolor flow cytometry on Ficoll isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). CD27+ switched memory B cells are a subset of B cells and are assessed by flow cytometry. CD27+ switched memory B cells are expressed as a percent of B cells. Lower CD27+ memory B cells indicate a decrease in the generation of B cell memory which may be caused by blocking lymphotoxin (LT) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling.


Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Percentage of Participants Fulfilling DAS-28-CRP "Good or Moderate Response" Criteria at Week 12 [ Time Frame: Week 12 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Good responders: change in DAS28-CRP (Baseline-Week12) > 1.2 and Week 12 DAS-CRP score was <\= 3.2. If the conditions for non-response* or good response were not met, the DAS28-CRP response was considered moderate. Participants with measurements for designated time points were included in the analysis. [*Non-responders had any of 4 conditions: change in DAS28-CRP (Baseline -Week 12) <0.6; 0.6 <\= change in DAS28-CRP ( Baseline-Week 12) < 1.2 with Week 12 DAS28-CRP score > 5.1; a flare that required prednisone > 10 mg/day (or equivalent) beyond Week 8 or the inability to taper prednisone to <\= 10 mg/day by Week 8; or the participant required prednisone > 20 mg/day at any time point].

  • Percentage of Participants Fulfilling DAS-28-CRP "Good or Moderate Response" Criteria at Week 24 [ Time Frame: Week 24 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Good responders had: change in DAS28-CRP (Baseline-Week 24) > 1.2 and the Week 24 DAS-CRP score was <= 3.2. If the conditions for non-response* or good response were not met then the DAS28-CRP response was considered moderate.[*Non-responders had any of the 4 conditions: change in DAS28-CRP (Baseline -Week 24) <0.6; 0.6 <\= change in DAS28-CRP ( Baseline-Week 24) < 1.2 with Week 24 DAS28-CRP score > 5.1 ; a flare that required prednisone > 10 mg/day (or equivalent) beyond Week 8 or the inability to taper prednisone to <= 10 mg/day by Week 8; or the participant required prednisone > 20 mg/day at any time point]. Participants with measurements for designated time points were included in the analysis.

  • Percentage of Participants Meeting ACR20 Response Criteria at Week 12 [ Time Frame: Week 12 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

    The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 20 Responder Index is defined as someone who achieved at least 20% improvement in the tender and swollen 28-joint count, and 20% improvement in at least three of the following 5 measures:

    • Patient's pain assessment (Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) 100 mm)
    • Patient's global assessment of disease activity (VAS 100 mm)
    • Physician's global assessment of disease activity (VAS 100 mm)
    • Patient self-assessed disability (Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) score)
    • Acute phase reactant (CRP).

    Participants with measurements for designated time points were included in the analysis.


  • Percentage of Participants Meeting ACR20 Response Criteria at Week 24 [ Time Frame: Week 24 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

    The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 20 Responder Index is defined as someone who achieved at least 20% improvement in the tender and swollen 28-joint count, and 20% improvement in at least three of the following 5 measures:

    • Patient's pain assessment (Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) 100 mm)
    • Patient's global assessment of disease activity (VAS 100 mm)
    • Physician's global assessment of disease activity (VAS 100 mm)
    • Patient self-assessed disability (Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) score)
    • Acute phase reactant (CRP).

    Participants with measurements for designated time points were included in the analysis.


  • Percentage of Participants Meeting ACR50 Response Criteria at Week 12 [ Time Frame: Week 12 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

    The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 50 Responder Index is defined as someone who achieved at least 50% improvement in the tender and swollen 28-joint count, and 50% improvement in at least three of the following 5 measures:

    • Patient's pain assessment (Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) 100 mm)
    • Patient's global assessment of disease activity (VAS 100 mm)
    • Physician's global assessment of disease activity (VAS 100 mm)
    • Patient self-assessed disability (Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) score)
    • Acute phase reactant (CRP).

    Participants with measurements for designated time points were included in the analysis.


  • Percentage of Participants Meeting ACR50 Response Criteria at Week 24 [ Time Frame: Week 24 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

    The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 50 Responder Index is defined as someone who achieved at least 50% improvement in the tender and swollen 28-joint count, and 50% improvement in at least three of the following 5 measures:

    • Patient's pain assessment (Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) 100 mm)
    • Patient's global assessment of disease activity (VAS 100 mm)
    • Physician's global assessment of disease activity (VAS 100 mm)
    • Patient self-assessed disability (Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) score)
    • Acute phase reactant (CRP).

    Participants with measurements for designated time points were included in the analysis.



Enrollment: 63
Study Start Date: March 2009
Study Completion Date: January 2014
Primary Completion Date: November 2013 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Etanercept
Participants receive a subcutaneous injection of etanercept once every week for 24 weeks
Drug: Etanercept
50 mg dose of etanercept by subcutaneous injection
Other Name: Enbrel®
Experimental: Adalimumab
Participants receive a subcutaneous injection of adalimumab once every 2 weeks for 24 weeks
Drug: Adalimumab
40 mg dose of adalimumab by subcutaneous injection
Other Name: Humira®)

Detailed Description:

RA is characterized by persistent inflammation of peripheral joints, causing pain, stiffness, swelling and warmth. Over the past 10 years, advancements in biotechnology have revolutionized RA therapeutics with biologically-derived immunomodulating compounds. TNF-alpha inhibitors constitute the largest class of these new biologic therapies. The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness two TNF inhibitors, etanercept and adalimumab, on memory B lymphocytes (B-cells) in the peripheral blood of participants with RA.

This study will last 24 weeks. Participants will be randomized into one of two treatment groups. Participants in one group will receive a dose of etanercept once every week for 24 weeks. Participants in the other group will receive a dose of adalimumab once every 2 weeks for 24 weeks.

This study consists of seven study visits after randomization and will occur at study entry and Weeks 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24. Blood collection will occur at all study visits. A written participant assessment, vital signs, and physical exam will occur at study entry and Weeks 12 and 24. Follow-up calls to assess safety are scheduled for Weeks 4, 8, 16, and 20.

Additionally, participants will be offered the opportunity to enter one of four sub-studies as mentioned in the brief summary above: B Cell Kinetic Sub-Study, Vaccine Response Sub-Study, Tonsil Biopsy Sub-Study, and Synovial Biopsy Sub-Study. More information on these sub-studies is in the protocol.

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 75 Years
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Diagnosis of RA*
  • Disease duration as defined from the onset of symptoms of at least 3 months prior to study entry
  • Active RA with DAS28 > 4.4, clinically requiring the addition of anti-TNF therapy
  • Stable dose of MTX between 7.5 mg and 25 mg weekly for at least 8 weeks prior to study entry
  • Able and willing to self-administer subcutaneous injections or have available qualified person(s) or caregiver to administer subcutaneous injections
  • For females, agree to use accepted methods of contraception during the duration of the study and for 150 days after study completion*. *More information on these criterion can be found in the protocol.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Positive PPD test - a tuberculosis (TB) skin test: (> 5 mm induration regardless of prior Bacille Calmette-Guerin [BCG] vaccine administration) without evidence of ongoing treatment for at least 30 days or completed treatment
  • History of positive PPD or chest x-ray findings indicative of prior TB infection, without documentation of either treatment for TB infection or chemoprophylaxis for TB exposure
  • Prednisone dose > 10 mg/day (or equivalent dose of another corticosteroid) within 30 days prior to study entry
  • Definitive diagnosis of another autoimmune disease that may require immunosuppression for treatment*
  • Concomitant use of DMARDSs (e.g., disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs)*
  • Any immunosuppressive therapy other than MTX, NSAIDs, or corticosteroids*
  • Current or previous use of any biologic agent
  • Presence of open leg ulcers
  • Chronic or persistent infection that might be worsened by immunosuppressive treatment*
  • Active infection or severe infections requiring hospitalization or treatment with intravenous (IV) antibiotics, IV antivirals, or IV antifungals within 30 days prior to study entry
  • Received oral antibiotics, antivirals, or antifungals within 14 days prior to study entry
  • Certain abnormal laboratory values*
  • Any medical condition that, in the opinion of the investigator, would interfere with the study
  • History of malignancy other than treated localized carcinoma in situ of the cervix or adequately treated non-metastatic squamous or basal cell skin carcinoma within 10 years prior to study entry
  • Any Investigational agent within the earlier of 4 weeks or 5 half-lives prior to study entry
  • History of drug or alcohol abuse within 6 months prior to study entry
  • Known allergy or hypersensitivity to study products
  • Inability or unwillingness to follow the protocol
  • Any condition or treatment that, in the opinion of the investigator, places the participant at an unacceptable risk
  • Pregnant or breastfeeding *More information on these criterion are in the protocol.
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00837434

Locations
United States, Alabama
University of Alabama
Birmingham, Alabama, United States, 35294
United States, California
University of California, San Francisco
San Francisco, California, United States, 94143
United States, Connecticut
Yale University School Medicine
New Haven, Connecticut, United States, 06519
United States, Illinois
University of Chicago
Chicago, Illinois, United States, 60637
United States, New York
Feinstein Institute for Medical Research
Manhassett, New York, United States, 11030
University of Rochester
Rochester, New York, United States, 14642
United States, South Carolina
Medical University of South Carolina
Charleston, South Carolina, United States, 29425
Sponsors and Collaborators
Autoimmunity Centers of Excellence
Investigators
Study Chair: Jennifer A. Anolik, MD, PhD University of Rochester
Study Chair: Inaki Sanz, MD University of Rochester
Study Chair: R. John Looney, MD University of Rochester
Principal Investigator: Meggan Mackay, MD The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research NS-LIJ Health System
Principal Investigator: Jeffrey Curtis, MD University of Alabama at Birmingham
  More Information

Additional Information:
Publications:
Responsible Party: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00837434     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: DAIT ARA06
Study First Received: February 3, 2009
Results First Received: March 18, 2015
Last Updated: April 10, 2015
Health Authority: United States: Federal Government

Keywords provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):
tumor necrosis factor (TNF) blockade
inflammatory autoimmune disorder

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Arthritis
Arthritis, Rheumatoid
Autoimmune Diseases
Connective Tissue Diseases
Immune System Diseases
Joint Diseases
Musculoskeletal Diseases
Rheumatic Diseases
Adalimumab
TNFR-Fc fusion protein
Analgesics
Analgesics, Non-Narcotic
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
Antirheumatic Agents
Central Nervous System Agents
Gastrointestinal Agents
Immunologic Factors
Immunosuppressive Agents
Peripheral Nervous System Agents
Pharmacologic Actions
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Sensory System Agents
Therapeutic Uses

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on July 28, 2015