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Efficacy of Post-operative Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Thoracic Surgery Requiring Tube Thoracostomy.

This study has been completed.
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
David A. Oxman, MD, Brigham and Women's Hospital Identifier:
First received: January 7, 2009
Last updated: May 16, 2012
Last verified: May 2012
The purpose of this study is to evaluate if post-operative antibiotic prophylaxis decrease infectious complications when compared to pre-operative antibiotics alone, in patients undergoing elective thoracic surgery requiring tube thoracostomy (chest tube).

Condition Intervention
Antibiotic Prophylaxis
Drug: cefazolin or vancomycin
Drug: Placebo

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double Blind (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Extended Antibiotic Prophylaxis for the Prevention of Infectious Complications Associated With Tube Thoracostomy in Patients Undergoing Elective Thoracic Surgery: A Prospective, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by Brigham and Women's Hospital:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Primary Outcome Measures: Surgical site infection, pneumonia, empyema and clostridium difficile colitis. [ Time Frame: 30 days ]

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Antibiotic escalation, need for re-operation, length of hospital stay and 30-day mortality. [ Time Frame: 30 days ]

Enrollment: 251
Study Start Date: March 2008
Study Completion Date: April 2011
Primary Completion Date: April 2011 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Active Comparator: Antibiotic Drug: cefazolin or vancomycin
Cefazolin IV every eight hours post-operatively for 48 hours, or until all chest tubes have been removed -- whichever comes first. Subjects under 80kg will receive 1 gram of cefazolin and subjects who are 80kg or more will receive 2 grams of cefazolin. Subjects who are penicillin-allergic will receive 1 gram of vancomycin every 12 hours for 48 hours, or until all chest tubes are removed -- whichever comes first.
Other Names:
  • Cefazolin (Ancef)
  • Vancomycin (Vancocin)
Placebo Comparator: Placebo Drug: Placebo
Subjects will receive IV placebo for 48 hours post-operatively, or until all chest tubes are removed -- whichever comes first.

Detailed Description:

There is currently no evidence-based standard for the extended use of prophylactic antibiotics in patients receiving thoracic surgery that results in the placement of a tube thoracostomy (chest tube). The rationale for this prophylaxis is that antibiotics directed at typical skin flora may reduce the rate of infectious complications, such as surgical site infection and empyema.

Currently, clinicians' approach to post-operative antibiotic prophylaxis in patients undergoing tube thoracostomy associated with thoracic and cardio-thoracic surgery varies widely. While reducing the infectious complications of thoracic surgery is an important goal, it is also important to reduce the use of unnecessary antibiotics. As there is equipoise on the subject of extended antibiotic prophylaxis for tube thoracostomy, our study will examine two prevailing clinical practices and attempt to determine if one leads to better patient outcomes.


Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Adults aged 18 years or older undergoing elective thoracic surgery at Brigham & Women's Hospital. The majority of these patients will be undergoing lung resection for either the evaluation of a lung mass, or for the removal of a known malignancy. Some subjects may be undergoing biopsy or removal of a mediastinal mass.
  • Undergoing thoracic surgery procedure expected to require tube thoracostomy.
  • Ability to give informed consent

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Patients undergoing the following complex thoracic surgical procedures:

    • Pneumonectomy
    • Decortication
    • Chemical pleurodesis
    • Pleurectomy
    • Lung volume reduction
    • Esophagectomy
  • Patients with the following conditions:

    • Prior diagnosis of empyema or lung abscess.
    • Cystic fibrosis
    • Known or suspected pneumonia pre-operatively.
    • Known hypersensitivity to beta-lactam antibiotics and vancomycin
    • Current or recent antibiotic use within one week of surgery.
    • Anticipated requirement for postoperative antibiotic in addition to 48 hours of cefazolin or vancomycin.
    • Renal insufficiency with estimated creatinine clearance <60 ml/minute.
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Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT00818766

United States, Massachusetts
Brigham & Women's Hospital
Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02115
Sponsors and Collaborators
Brigham and Women's Hospital
Principal Investigator: Lindsey Baden, MD Brigham and Women's Hospital
  More Information

Publications automatically indexed to this study by Identifier (NCT Number):
Responsible Party: David A. Oxman, MD, Co-Investigator, Brigham and Women's Hospital Identifier: NCT00818766     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 2007p002164
Study First Received: January 7, 2009
Last Updated: May 16, 2012

Keywords provided by Brigham and Women's Hospital:
Thoracic Surgery
Antibiotic Prophylaxis
Chest Tube

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Anti-Bacterial Agents
Antibiotics, Antitubercular
Anti-Infective Agents
Antitubercular Agents processed this record on April 21, 2017