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Placebo Controlled Study of Atomoxetine in the Treatment of Mild to Moderate Cognitive Difficulties in Menopausal Women

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00611533
First Posted: February 11, 2008
Last Update Posted: April 17, 2017
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
Collaborator:
Eli Lilly and Company
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
University of Pennsylvania
  Purpose
The purpose of this study is to examine the efficacy of atomoxetine (ATX) treatment for the mild to moderate cognitive disturbances frequently experienced by women during the menopause transition. In addition, we seek to determine, using the Brown Attention Deficit Disorder Scale (BADDS), whether and to what degree peri- and early post-menopausal women experience cognitive disturbances which overlap with the impairments of executive function characteristic of adults with attention deficit disorder (ADHD).

Condition Intervention
Menopause Cognitive Disturbances Drug: atomoxetine Drug: placebo

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment
Masking: Triple (Participant, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Controlled Trial of Atomoxetine in the Treatment of Mild to Moderate Cognitive Difficulties in Menopausal Women

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by University of Pennsylvania:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Brown Attention Deficit Disorder Scale [ Time Frame: Baseline and after 6 weeks intervention ]
    Raw scores for 5 clusters (organizing/activating, attention/concentration, alertness/effort/processing, managing affect interference, and working memory/recall) on the BADDS were converted to T scores which range from 50-99, with higher scores meaning greater impairment.

  • BADDS Total Score [ Time Frame: Baseline and after 6 weeks intervention ]
    The total BADDS ranged from 0-120 with higher scores meaning greater problems with memory, attention and focus.


Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Blood Pressure [ Time Frame: Baseline and after 6 weeks intervention ]
  • Heart Rate [ Time Frame: Baseline and after 6 weeks intervention ]
  • Weight [ Time Frame: Baseline and after 6 weeks intervention ]

Enrollment: 16
Study Start Date: May 2004
Study Completion Date: April 2008
Primary Completion Date: April 2008 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Active Comparator: Atomoxetine
Subjects were enrolled into a double-blind, placebo-controlled cross over study where they will receive ATX 40mg/d x 1 week, then 80mg/d x 5 weeks or placebo (PBO) for 6 weeks, followed by a 4-week wash out period that is followed by an additional 6 weeks of treatment in the alternate condition. The 4-week washout period include a 4-day taper in the first week. Subjects undergo assessments of cognition, mood, and menopausal symptoms prior to randomization, after 6 weeks in the first treatment condition (ATX or PBO) and then finally after the second 6-week period of the alternate treatment condition. Subjects are monitored every other week to assess medication compliance and side effects. Subjects will be instructed to take one capsule of ATX 40mg/d or placebo per day. If tolerated, the number of pills of ATX will be increased to 2 per day at the end of Week 1 of both Trials A and B. Subjects will remain on two capsules per day for the remaining 5 weeks of Trials A and B.
Drug: atomoxetine
Subjects will receive ATX 40mg/d x 1 week, then 80mg/d x 5 weeks followed by a 4-week wash out period that is followed by an additional 6 weeks of treatment in the alternate condition. The 4-week washout period include a 4-day taper in the first week.
Other Name: Strattera
Placebo Comparator: Placebo
Subjects were enrolled into a double-blind, placebo-controlled cross over study where they will receive ATX 40mg/d x 1 week, then 80mg/d x 5 weeks or placebo (PBO) for 6 weeks, followed by a 4-week wash out period that is followed by an additional 6 weeks of treatment in the alternate condition. The 4-week washout period include a 4-day taper in the first week. Subjects undergo assessments of cognition, mood, and menopausal symptoms prior to randomization, after 6 weeks in the first treatment condition (ATX or PBO) and then finally after the second 6-week period of the alternate treatment condition. Subjects are monitored every other week to assess medication compliance and side effects. Subjects will be instructed to take one capsule of ATX 40mg/d or placebo per day. If tolerated, the number of pills of ATX will be increased to 2 per day at the end of Week 1 of both Trials A and B. Subjects will remain on two capsules per day for the remaining 5 weeks of Trials A and B.
Drug: placebo
Subjects will receive placebo equivalent for 6 weeks followed by a 4-week wash out period that is followed by an additional 6 weeks of treatment in the alternate condition. The 4-week washout period include a 4-day taper in the first week.

Detailed Description:

Decline in cognitive function, and in particular memory, is a frequent complaint for which menopausal women seek clinical intervention. While there is a wealth of preclinical evidence demonstrating the neuroprotective and cognitive enhancing role of estradiol (Wise et al., 1999; Jezierski & Sohrabji, 2001), recent publicity from the Women's Health Initiative Study has made gynecologists and menopausal women concerned about using estrogen therapy (ET) to address their cognitive complaints as well as other symptoms of menopause (WHI Writing Group, 2002). Decades of data suggesting that estrogen enhances cognitive function in women undergoing surgical or natural menopause (Sherwin et al., 1998) has been all but forgotten in the wake of the results of the WHI. Further, recent findings from a naturalistic study suggesting that having used estrogen replacement therapy for three years before the mean age of 70 years significantly reduced the risk of Alzheimer's Disease (AD; Zandi et al., 2002) did not receive sufficient attention in the lay press or in scientific circles to allay concerns. Most recently, conjugated equine estrogen plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (PremPro®) use daily is associated with a small increased risk for dementia (Schumaker et al., 2003).

Now that clinicians and women have become hesitant to utilize ET, they find themselves between the proverbial rock and a hard place as there have been no studies demonstrating efficacy of any other agent in the treatment of mild to moderate cognitive difficulties in healthy non-demented menopausal women. Thus, it is timely and crucial to investigate other pharmacologic strategies aimed at improving cognitive function in this population.

Interestingly, many of the cognitive complaints detected in menopausal women including, short-term memory, organization of tasks, sustaining focus and concentration, and regulating emotions, overlap with symptoms frequently reported by adults with ADHD (Warga, 1999; Brown, 2000). That ATX has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of ADHD provides a compelling rationale for investigating the treatment of menopause-related declines in memory and cognitive function. Thus, this will be the first double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over clinical trial to obtain preliminary data for the efficacy of ATX in the treatment of mild to moderate cognitive disturbances in menopause aged women. Women who are in the early menopause have been chosen for this study as clinical and preclinical data suggest that long periods of hypoestrogenism may be associated with poorer response to intervention with ET. Therefore, we believe that this population may be more likely to respond to treatment with ATX than women who have been postmenopausal for many years.

  Eligibility

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   45 Years to 60 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Female
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Menopausal subjects between the ages of 45 and 60 years;
  • Physically healthy with no major medical illnesses;
  • No history within the past 5 years of a DSM-IV psychiatric or substance abuse diagnosis by structured diagnostic interview (SCID);
  • Subjects will be determined to be either peri or post-menopausal;
  • Subjects must be within 5 years of their last menstrual period;
  • Subjective report of cognitive disturbances of at least mild to moderate severity;
  • All subjects must be of at least average intelligence as determined using the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI).

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Clinical evidence of dementia and/or signs of dementia on the Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE score of <22);
  • History of familial dementia;
  • Use of any psychotropic medication within the previous 6 months;
  • Use of any estrogen replacement therapy within the previous 6 months;
  • Current pregnancy;
  • Signs of an unstable medical or neurological disorder.
  Contacts and Locations
Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT00611533


Locations
United States, Connecticut
Yale University School of Medicine
New Haven, Connecticut, United States, 06511
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Pennsylvania
Eli Lilly and Company
Investigators
Principal Investigator: Cynthia N Epperson, MD Yale University School of Medicine Department of Psychiatry
  More Information

Publications:
Responsible Party: University of Pennsylvania
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00611533     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 0403026533
First Submitted: January 29, 2008
First Posted: February 11, 2008
Results First Submitted: January 10, 2017
Results First Posted: March 3, 2017
Last Update Posted: April 17, 2017
Last Verified: March 2017

Keywords provided by University of Pennsylvania:
Menopause
Cognition

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Cognitive Dysfunction
Cognition Disorders
Neurocognitive Disorders
Mental Disorders
Atomoxetine Hydrochloride
Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors
Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors
Membrane Transport Modulators
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Adrenergic Agents
Neurotransmitter Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs