Budesonide in Treating Patients With Lung Nodules at High Risk of Developing Lung Cancer

This study has been completed.
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
M.D. Anderson Cancer Center
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
First received: May 2, 2006
Last updated: November 4, 2011
Last verified: November 2011

RATIONALE: Chemoprevention is the use of certain drugs to keep cancer from forming, growing, or coming back. The use of budesonide may keep lung cancer from forming in patients with lung nodules.

PURPOSE: This randomized phase II trial is studying how well inhalation budesonide works in treating patients with lung nodules who are at high risk of lung cancer.

Condition Intervention Phase
Lung Cancer
Drug: Budesonide
Other: Placebo
Phase 2

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Caregiver, Investigator)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: Randomized Phase II Trial of Budesonide Turbuhaler® 800 Micrograms/Twice Daily Versus Placebo in High-Risk Population With Undetermined Lung Nodules Detected at Screening Low Dose CT Scan

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by M.D. Anderson Cancer Center:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Number (and Size) CT-detected Lung Nodules by Participant [ Time Frame: Baseline to 3 Years ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Lung nodules in a person-specific analysis by Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) criteria.

  • Participant Response [ Time Frame: Baseline up to 3 Years ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Number of participants with response according to RECIST criteria. For single nodules > 5 mm, clinical meaningful shrinkage of 30% or > of longest diameter (LD) considered treatment success after 1 year of treatment. For single nodules with LD <5 mm, complete disappearance considered treatment success. In case of multiple lesions success of treatment is when complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) occurs according to RECIST criteria.

Enrollment: 225
Study Start Date: January 2006
Study Completion Date: September 2011
Primary Completion Date: September 2011 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Arm I: Budesonide
Inhaled Budesonide twice daily for 1 year
Drug: Budesonide
Inhaled Budesonide 800 micrograms twice daily for one year.
Other Names:
  • Entocort EC
  • Pulmincort Respules
  • Rhinocort aqua
Placebo Comparator: Arm II: Placebo
Inhaled placebo twice daily for 1 year
Other: Placebo
Inhaled placebo twice daily for one year.

Detailed Description:



  • Evaluate the effect, in terms of size and number reduction of computed tomography (CT) scan-detected undetermined lung nodules, in asymptomatic subjects with lung nodules at high-risk for developing lung cancer treated with inhaled budesonide vs placebo.


  • Compare average modification of nodule size and nodule number due to inhaled budesonide versus placebo.
  • Correlate the modulation of biological markers of lung cancer in serum and sputum after treatment with the modification of lung nodules sizes.
  • Determine treatment toxicity, side effects, and safety of inhaled budesonide.
  • Evaluate the role of CT scans in estimating the grade of respiratory impairment and emphysema.
  • Determine the effect of inhaled budesonide on respiratory function before and after treatment.

OUTLINE: This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study.

Participants are stratified according to gender, smoking habit (current vs former smoker), and nodule characteristics (solid vs semisolid or non-solid). Participants are randomized into 1 of 2 treatment arms.

  • Arm I: Subjects receive inhaled budesonide twice daily for 1 year in the absence of unacceptable toxicity.
  • Arm II: Subjects receive inhaled placebo twice daily for 1 year in the absence of unacceptable toxicity.

Participants undergo blood and sputum collection periodically during study for biomarker and correlative studies.

After completion of study therapy, subjects are followed at 1 month and continue CT scan screening.

PROJECTED ACCRUAL: A total of 202 patients will be accrued for this study.


Ages Eligible for Study:   50 Years and older
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. Current smokers or former smokers that have stopped within the last 15 years
  2. Smoking history > 20 pack/years
  3. Age > 50 years
  4. Persistent lung nodules detected at Low dose computed tomography (LDCT) scan from previous year with 1 of the following:- longest diameter between 4&5 mm. Nodules may be stable or grown from the previous year (< 5 mm does not require additional diagnostic follow-up); longest diameter between 5.1 & 8 mm. Nodules may be stable or grown from the previous year. If grown, doubling time should be >1 year; longest diameter > 8 mm with negative PET scan, negative CT enhancement. Nodule should have grown with a doubling time between 1& 5 years; -longest diameter >8mm, non solid or partially solid nodules, stable or grown with doubling time between 1&5 years
  5. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status < 1 (Karnofsky >60%)
  6. Participants must have normal organ and marrow function as defined below: Leukocytes >3,000/mL, absolute neutrophil count greater than 1,500/mL, platelets greater than 100,000/mL, total bilirubin lower than 1.5 * upper normal institutional limits, aspartate aminotransferase (AST or SGOT)/alanine aminotransferase (ALT or SGPT) lower than 1.5 * upper normal institutional limits, creatinine lower than 1.5 * upper normal institutional limits
  7. Females must be postmenopausal (ie, at least 1 year passed after the last menstruation), surgically sterile, or using acceptable contraceptive measures as judged by the Investigator. (A fertile woman is defined as being of child-bearing potential, from first menstruation to 1 year after last menstruation.). Negative serum beta-HCG for women of childbearing potential will be required at baseline. Should a woman become pregnant or suspect she is pregnant while participating in this study, she should inform her study physician immediately
  8. Ability to understand and the willingness to sign a written informed consent document.

Exclusion Criteria:

  1. More than 6 lung nodules (suspect of chronic granulomatous disease)
  2. Lung nodules with clearly benign morphological features at CT scan (i.e, homogenous calcification, solid nodules with regular and round or polygonal margins and distance from the pleura <1cm)
  3. Subjects currently suffering from malignant disease or having had malignant disease within the last 5 years except for cervical carcinoma in situ and non melanoma skin cancer
  4. Regular/chronic use of oral or inhaled corticosteroids; regular use being defined as a total of 3 months cumulative use in the last 12 months
  5. Use of any other investigational agents at time of enrollment in the study during the three months preceding study enrollment
  6. History of allergic reactions attributed to compounds of similar chemical or biologic composition to corticosteroid
  7. Uncontrolled intercurrent illness including, but not limited to, ongoing or active infection, symptomatic congestive heart failure, unstable angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmia, or psychiatric illness/social situations that would limit compliance with study requirements. Any other factor that at the investigator's discretion contraindicates the use of inhaled corticosteroids
  8. Pregnant or lactating females, or females planning to become pregnant during the study. Should a woman become pregnant or suspect she is pregnant while participating in this study, she should inform her study physician immediately. If needed, a pregnancy test will be performed on serum during baseline lab test
  9. HIV-positive or other patients with immunodeficiencies should be excluded because of the risk of infections
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Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00321893

European Institute of Oncology
Milan, Italy, 20141
Sponsors and Collaborators
M.D. Anderson Cancer Center
Study Chair: Giulia Veronesi, MD European Institute of Oncology
Study Chair: Scott M. Lippman, MD, FACP M.D. Anderson Cancer Center
  More Information

Additional Information:
No publications provided by M.D. Anderson Cancer Center

Additional publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
Responsible Party: M.D. Anderson Cancer Center
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00321893     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 2005-0953, MDA-05-5-01, MDA-S262/505, MDA-2005-0953, EUDRACT-2005-004614-32, CDR0000470861
Study First Received: May 2, 2006
Last Updated: November 4, 2011
Health Authority: United States: Institutional Review Board

Keywords provided by M.D. Anderson Cancer Center:
Small cell lung cancer
Non-small cell lung cancer
Entocort EC
Pulmicort Respules
Rhinocort aqua
Aerosol budesonide treatment

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Lung Neoplasms
Lung Diseases
Neoplasms by Site
Respiratory Tract Diseases
Respiratory Tract Neoplasms
Thoracic Neoplasms
Anti-Asthmatic Agents
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Autonomic Agents
Bronchodilator Agents
Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists
Peripheral Nervous System Agents
Pharmacologic Actions
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Respiratory System Agents
Therapeutic Uses

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on April 23, 2015