Taxotere and Adriamycin/Cytoxan (AC) Validation in Breast Cancer Patients (TACAC)
|Breast Cancer||Drug: Taxotere/Docetaxel Drug: Adriamycin/Cytoxan Drug: doxorubicin||Phase 2|
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||A Randomized Multicenter Trial of Neoadjuvant Taxotere (T) and Adriamycin/Cytoxan (Ac): A Validation|
- Pathological Tumor Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy (Taxotere and AC) [ Time Frame: 10 years ]
The patients' pathological response were assessed using Chevalier's system which graded the responses into Chevalier 1, 2, 3A, 3B, 3C, 3D, and 4, defined as:
- Disappearance of all tumor either on macroscopic or microscopic assessment in both the breast and LN (pCR)
- Presence of in situ carcinoma in the breast. No invasive tumor in breast and no tumor in LN (pCR)
- Presence of invasive cancer with stromal alteration such as sclerosis or fibrosis (pPR) 3A: Subjectively > 75% therapeutic effect 3B: Subjectively between 50% - 75% therapeutic effect 3C: Subjectively between 25% - 50% therapeutic effect 3D: Subjectively < 25% therapeutic effect OR Grade 4
- No or few modification of tumoral appearance (pNR).
- Disease Relapse [ Time Frame: 10 years ]Data associated with relapse and progression will be obtained over the course of 10 years. Relapse/progression was defined using Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors Criteria (RECIST v1.0), as a 20% increase in the sum of the longest diameter of target lesions, or a measurable increase in a non-target lesion, or the appearance of new lesions.
- Overall Survival [ Time Frame: 10 years ]
|Study Start Date:||September 2004|
|Estimated Study Completion Date:||September 2017|
|Primary Completion Date:||October 2016 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Experimental: A: Taxotere/Docetaxel
Chemotherapy In Arm A, patients will receive single agent Taxotere (100 mg/m2) every 3 weeks for 4 cycles before surgery. Primary surgery will then be conducted, if operable, following completion of neoadjuvant treatment. This will be followed by standard adjuvant AC (doxorubicin 60 mg/m2 and cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2, every 3 weeks) for 4 cycles. For patients whose BSA is greater than 2.0 m2, the Adriamycin dosage will be calculated using BSA = 2.0 m2. This is done in order to minimize Adriamycin-induced cardiotoxicity.
Other Name: docetaxelDrug: doxorubicin
AC (doxorubicin 60 mg/m2 and cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2, every 3 weeks) for 4 cycles before surgery.
Other Name: AC, ADRIAMYCIN/CYTOXAN
Experimental: B: AC Adriamycin/Cytoxan
In Arm B, patients will receive AC (doxorubicin 60 mg/m2 and cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2, every 3 weeks) for 4 cycles before surgery. For patients whose BSA is greater than 2.0 m2, the Adriamycin dosage will be calculated using BSA = 2.0 m2. Primary surgery will then be conducted, if operable, following completion of neoadjuvant treatment. This will be followed by 4 cycles of single agent Taxotere (100 mg/m2) every 3 weeks.
Other Name: doxorubicin
Large clinical trials have confirmed the value of systemic adjuvant therapy in decreasing the risk of recurrence and death in patients with early breast cancer. However, the need to identify breast cancer patients who will benefit from adjuvant therapy, while sparing others from the side effects of futile treatment, is spurring research into predictive markers of chemotherapy sensitivity and resistance. In the adjuvant setting, extremely large trials and long follow-up would be required to prospectively validate the predictive value of biomarkers of chemotherapy sensitivity or resistance. In part this is because response is not directly observable. Preoperative chemotherapy for large tumors (>3cm) or inoperable breast cancer is well established and is the standard of care for locally advanced breast cancer. Data from large series of patients have demonstrated that preoperative (neoadjuvant) chemotherapy leads to significant reduction of tumor size (downstaging) and improves both the rate and the cosmetic results of breast- conserving surgery. The degree of response to neoadjuvant therapy has been shown to predict improved overall survival. This is therefore an attractive setting to study predictors of response because tissue is accessible from pre- therapeutic biopsies and tumor response is directly observable.
In an early proof-of-principle pilot study of single agent neoadjuvant docetaxol, we identified a predictive gene expression pattern, and, using leave-one-cross validation, a method of internal validation, we demonstrated that the pattern was likely to accurately discriminate between responders and non-responders (Chang, J.C., et al., Gene expression profiling for the prediction of therapeutic response to docetaxel in patients with breast cancer. Lancet, 2003. 362(9381): p. 362-9). A similar pilot study of neoadjuvant AC undertaken by a collaborator in the UK suggests that different profiles will be predictive for AC response.
In order to definitively determine predictive patterns for both regimens (T and AC) using improved technology for RNA preparation and a larger, more comprehensive gene expression array, we undertook a randomized Phase II trial of these two widely used regimens (Protocol H-11624 - A RANDOMIZED MULTICENTER TRIAL OF NEOADJUVANT TAXOTERE AND ADRIAMYCIN/CYTOXAN (AC): A BIOLOGIC CORRELATIVE STUDY). The trial is nearing completion, having recruited more than 90 patients out of an expected 120 patients. To date, the risks associated with this study have been modest, and there have been no unexpected adverse events. The laboratory work is well underway and gives every indication that clinically useful classifiers to predict treatment efficacy will result.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00206518
|United States, Texas|
|Baylor Breast Center|
|Houston, Texas, United States, 77030|
|Principal Investigator:||Mothaffar Rimawi, MD||Baylor Breast Center|