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Comparison of Two Pulmonary Valve Replacement Methods to Treat Tetralogy of Fallot

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT00112320
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : June 2, 2005
Last Update Posted : December 4, 2012
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Judith Geva, Boston Children’s Hospital

Brief Summary:
Repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), the most common form of cyanotic congenital heart disease, usually involves surgery on the outflow of the right ventricle (RV) and the pulmonary valve in order to relieve obstruction to blood flow from the RV to the lungs. This procedure often leads to regurgitation (leakage) of the pulmonary valve, which puts the burden of handling a larger than normal amount of blood flow on the RV. Over the years, that extra burden leads to enlargement of the RV and to a decrease in its function. Treatment often includes surgical insertion or replacement of a new pulmonary valve. Replacement of the damaged pulmonary valve aims to minimize the leakage and help the RV function better. This study is designed to compare two methods of how the operation (called pulmonary valve replacement [PVR]) is performed. In the first method, a new valve is inserted and only the area of the old valve is operated on; this is the standard PVR. The second method involves inserting the new valve in the same way as the standard method but, in addition, areas of the right ventricular wall that are scarred and not functioning well are removed (PVR plus right ventricular remodeling). This study will evaluate which method is more effective based on the size and function of the RV measured by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) six months following surgery, as compared to its size and function before the operation.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Tetralogy of Fallot Pulmonary Valve Insufficiency Ventricular Dysfunction, Right Procedure: PVR plus RV remodeling Procedure: Standard PVR Not Applicable

Detailed Description:


Surgical repair of TOF often results in chronic pulmonary regurgitation (PR) with associated RV dilatation and dysfunction. Mounting evidence indicates that PR leads to significant long-term morbidity and mortality, including arrhythmias, sudden death, and right heart failure. Using CMR, there is a high prevalence of regional dysfunction and aneurysms in the RV in patients with repaired TOF. Current standard clinical practice in patients with repaired TOF, severe PR, ventricular dysfunction, and/or clinical deterioration is to insert a bioprosthetic pulmonary valve to reduce the volume load on the RV. Although PVR can be achieved with low mortality, research has shown a persistent or worsening RV dysfunction postoperatively, despite a competent pulmonary valve. In patients with left ventricular (LV) aneurysms, surgical remodeling with aneurysm resection has been shown to improve LV mechanics. In view of the potentially deleterious effects of aneurysmal and akinetic wall segments on RV mechanics, researcher have recently modified their PVR surgical technique in selected patients to include surgical remodeling of the RV with resection of the akinetic wall segments. However, no studies have systematically compared the efficacy of PVR plus surgical RV remodeling to PVR alone.

Research Question:

Is there a difference between two surgical strategies—PVR alone (bioprosthetic pulmonary valve insertion and, when present, resection of right ventricular outflow tract [RVOT] aneurysm) versus PVR and surgical RV remodeling (bioprosthetic pulmonary valve insertion and resection of akinetic scarred areas on the anterior RV wall to reduce RV volume)—on RV mechanics and on the incidence of adverse events in patients with repaired TOF and chronic pulmonary regurgitation?

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 68 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Randomized Trial of Pulmonary Valve Replacement in Tetralogy of Fallot
Study Start Date : April 2004
Actual Primary Completion Date : August 2011
Actual Study Completion Date : August 2011

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

Arm Intervention/treatment
Active Comparator: 1
Standard PVR
Procedure: Standard PVR
PVR alone, which includes bioprosthetic pulmonary valve insertion and, when present, resection of right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) aneurysm

Experimental: 2
PVR plus RV remodeling
Procedure: PVR plus RV remodeling
PVR and surgical RV remodeling, which includes bioprosthetic pulmonary valve insertion and resection of akinetic scarred areas on the anterior RV wall to reduce RV volume

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Changes in ventricular mechanics compared with the preoperative ventricular mechanics [ Time Frame: Measured at 6 months ]

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Incidence of one or more postoperative adverse events [ Time Frame: Measured at 6 months ]

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   10 Years and older   (Child, Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Undergoing PVR to repair TOF at Children's Hospital Boston
  • Pulmonary regurgitation fraction greater than or equal to 25% (measured by CMR) and two or more of the following criteria:

    1. RV end-diastolic volume index greater than or equal to 150 ml/m2 (Z score greater than 5)
    2. RV end-systolic volume index greater than or equal to 70 ml/m2
    3. LV end-diastolic volume index less than or equal to 65 ml/m2
    4. RV ejection fraction less than 45%
    5. RVOT aneurysm
    6. Clinical criteria: exercise intolerance, symptoms and signs of heart failure, and use of cardiac medications

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Presence of either severe RV outflow tract obstruction (defined as peak-to-peak systolic gradient of greater than or equal to 60 mm Hg by cardiac catheterization) or severe RV hypertension at systemic or higher level
  • Additional sources of RV volume overload other than PR and tricuspid valve regurgitation
  • Contraindications to CMR

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT00112320

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United States, Massachusetts
Department of Cardiology, Children's Hospital Boston
Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02115
Sponsors and Collaborators
Boston Children’s Hospital
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
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Principal Investigator: Tal Geva, MD Boston Children’s Hospital
Publications automatically indexed to this study by Identifier (NCT Number):
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Responsible Party: Judith Geva, Study coordinator, Boston Children’s Hospital Identifier: NCT00112320    
Other Study ID Numbers: 188
P50HL074734 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
P50HL074734-01 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
First Posted: June 2, 2005    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: December 4, 2012
Last Verified: December 2012
Keywords provided by Judith Geva, Boston Children’s Hospital:
Pulmonary Valve Regurgitation
Right Ventricular Dysfunction
Heart Diseases
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Respiratory Insufficiency
Ventricular Dysfunction
Tetralogy of Fallot
Pulmonary Valve Insufficiency
Ventricular Dysfunction, Right
Heart Diseases
Cardiovascular Diseases
Heart Defects, Congenital
Cardiovascular Abnormalities
Congenital Abnormalities
Heart Valve Diseases
Respiration Disorders
Respiratory Tract Diseases