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Effectiveness of Directly Observed Therapy in Combined HIV and Tuberculosis Treatment in Resource-limited Settings

This study has been completed.
Information provided by:
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Identifier:
First received: September 20, 2004
Last updated: March 26, 2010
Last verified: January 2007
Tuberculosis (TB), a bacterial infection common in HIV infected people, is a major problem in developing countries. The purpose of this study is to test the effectiveness of a combined treatment strategy using directly observed therapy (DOT) for HIV infected patients with TB. Participants will be recruited from resource-poor communities in Durban, South Africa.

Condition Intervention
HIV Infections
Drug: Didanosine
Drug: Efavirenz
Drug: Lamivudine
Drug: Standard TB treatment

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Implementing Anti-Retroviral Therapy in Resource-Constrained Settings: A Randomized Controlled Trial to Assess the Effect of Integrated Tuberculosis and HIV Care on the Incidence of AIDS-Defining Conditions or Mortality in Subjects Co-Infected With Tuberculosis and HIV

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Diagnosis of an AIDS-defining illness
  • 18-month mortality

Estimated Enrollment: 592
Study Start Date: August 2009
Detailed Description:

TB is the most common serious infectious complication associated with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa and is also the most common cause of death among HIV infected patients in developing countries. Furthermore, TB in an HIV infected person accelerates the progression of HIV disease and hastens death. This study will evaluate a combined TB and antiretroviral treatment (ART) strategy utilizing DOT in HIV infected people coinfected with TB. This study will compare two treatment strategies: TB and HIV medications given concurrently (integrated arm) and TB treatment completed first, followed by HIV treatment (sequential arm).

This study has two parts. The entire study will last 24 months after participants have been randomly assigned to one of two arms. Arm 1 (integrated arm) participants will receive didanosine (ddI), efavirenz (EFV), and lamivudine (3TC) once daily concurrent with standard TB therapy. ART and TB medications will be provided through DOT on weekdays; participants will take their medications without DOT on weekends. Arm 1 participants will also attend four 15- to 20-minute sessions of an adherence study program at study start, Week 2, Month 2, and 1 to 3 weeks prior to the end of TB therapy.

Arm 2 (sequential arm) participants will first receive DOT-provided TB treatment alone. After completion of TB treatment, participants will receive ddI, EFV, and 3TC once daily without DOT.

Study visits in the first part of the study will occur at screening, study start, Weeks 1, 2, and 3, and every month until the end of the first part of the study at Month 12. Study visits will include blood collection, medical and medication history assessment, a physical exam, and pill counts. Patients will be asked to complete an adherence questionnaire at every study visit and a sexual behavior survey and quality of life questionnaire at study start and Month 6.


Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria for First Part of Study:

  • HIV infected
  • TB infected
  • Currently receiving standard anti-TB therapy (isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide)
  • Currently participating in the Prince Cyril Zulu CDC Directly Observed Therapy (DOT) program and receiving treatment daily either there or in the community with a supervised community nurse or trained health worker
  • Intending to stay in the area for the duration of the study
  • Willing to participate in all follow-up visits
  • Willing to use acceptable forms of contraception
  • Female participants must be willing to have regular pregnancy tests during ART

Exclusion Criteria for First Part of Study:

  • Have had 28 days or more of cumulative ART prior to study entry. Participants who have taken mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) and postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) prevention treatments are not excluded.
  • Less than 10 days or greater than 28 days since starting current TB treatment
  • Body temperature greater than 38.5 C (101.3 F)
  • Rash, nausea, or vomiting of Grade 3 or higher
  • Hospitalized or referred for hospitalization for care and treatment of opportunistic infections, TB, or other causes at screening or enrollment
  • CD4 count less than 50 cells/microL within 28 days of study entry
  • TB meningitis or TB that has spread to the blood and organs other than the lungs
  • History of prior TB treatment or previous active TB episode unresponsive to a standard anti-TB regimen
  • History of or current AIDS-defining condition as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO)
  • History of or current pancreatitis
  • Peripheral neuropathy of Grade 2 or higher
  • Currently taking certain medications
  • Suspected multidrug resistant (MDR) TB
  • Any condition that, in the opinion of the investigator, may interfere with the study
  • Participation in any other study that may interfere with this study
  • Pregnancy
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Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT00091936

South Africa
King Edward VIII Hospital
Congella, Durban, South Africa
Prince Cyril Zulu CDC
Congella, Durban, South Africa
Sponsors and Collaborators
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Study Chair: Salim S. Abdool Karim, MBChB, PhD University of KwaZulu
  More Information

Publications automatically indexed to this study by Identifier (NCT Number): Identifier: NCT00091936     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: CAPRISA START
Study First Received: September 20, 2004
Last Updated: March 26, 2010

Keywords provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):
Treatment Naive
Directly Observed Therapy

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
HIV Infections
Lentivirus Infections
Retroviridae Infections
RNA Virus Infections
Virus Diseases
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes
Immune System Diseases
Mycobacterium Infections
Actinomycetales Infections
Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections
Bacterial Infections
Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors
Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Anti-Retroviral Agents
Antiviral Agents
Anti-Infective Agents
Anti-HIV Agents
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9 Inhibitors
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19 Inhibitors
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2B6 Inducers
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inducers processed this record on April 21, 2017