3-AP Followed By Fludarabine In Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute or Chronic Leukemia or High-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndrome

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT00077558
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : February 12, 2004
Last Update Posted : March 10, 2010
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Information provided by:
Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins

Brief Summary:

RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as fludarabine, work in different ways to stop cancer cells from dividing so they stop growing or die. 3-AP may help fludarabine kill more cancer cells by making them more sensitive to the drug.

PURPOSE: This phase I trial is studying the side effects and best dose of fludarabine when given together with 3-AP in treating patients with relapsed or refractory acute leukemia, chronic leukemia, or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Leukemia Myelodysplastic Syndromes Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Diseases Drug: fludarabine phosphate Drug: triapine Phase 1

Detailed Description:


  • Determine the feasibility and tolerability of 3-AP (Triapine^® ) followed by fludarabine in patients with relapsed or refractory acute or chronic leukemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes.
  • Determine the toxic effects of this regimen in these patients.
  • Determine the maximum tolerated dose of this regimen in these patients.

OUTLINE: This is a multicenter, dose-escalation study of fludarabine. Patients are stratified according to disease (acute leukemias and myelodysplastic syndromes [MDS] vs chronic lymphocytic leukemia and prolymphocytic leukemia). Patients are assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups.

  • Group 1 (chronic lymphocytic leukemia or prolymphocytic leukemia): Patients receive 3-AP (Triapine^®) IV over 4 hours and fludarabine IV over 30 minutes on days 1-5.

Cohorts of 3-6 patients receive escalating doses of fludarabine until the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) is determined. The MTD is defined as the dose preceding that at which 2 of 6 patients experience dose-limiting toxicity. Once the MTD is determined, 10 additional patients are treated at that dose level.

  • Group 2 (acute leukemias or MDS): Patients receive 3-AP IV continuously over 24 hours on day 1. Beginning within 4 hours after completion of 3-AP, patients receive fludarabine IV over 30 minutes on days 2-6.

In both groups, treatment repeats every 3 weeks in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

PROJECTED ACCRUAL: A total of 3-34 patients will be accrued for this study.

Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Phase I Trial Of Sequential Administration Of Triapine (3-Aminopyridine-2-Carboxaldehyde Thiosemicarbazone) Followed By Fludarabine In Adults With Relapsed And Refractory Leukemias And Myelodysplasias
Study Start Date : January 2004

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No


  • Histologically confirmed diagnosis of 1 of the following:

    • High-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), including refractory anemia with excess blasts and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia

      • International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) score at least 1.5 based on the following:

        • More than 10% marrow blasts
        • Cytopenias in at least 2 lineages
        • Adverse cytogenetics
    • Acute myeloid leukemia (AML)

      • All subtypes, including MDS/AML and treatment-related (secondary) AML
    • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia
    • Acute progranulocytic leukemia

      • Ineligible for arsenic therapy
    • Chronic myelogenous leukemia

      • Accelerated phase or blastic crisis
    • Chronic lymphocytic leukemia
    • Prolymphocytic leukemia
  • Received or ineligible for established curative regimens, including stem cell transplantation
  • Acute and chronic leukemias must be relapsed and/or refractory with progressive disease since last therapy



  • 18 and over

Performance status

  • ECOG 0-2

Life expectancy

  • Not specified


  • No history of hemolytic anemia grade 2 or greater
  • No known glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency

    • G6PD screening required for high-risk groups (i.e., patients of African, Asian, or Mediterranean origin/ancestry)


  • SGOT and SGPT no greater than 2.5 times normal
  • Bilirubin no greater than 2 mg/dL
  • No chronic hepatitis


  • Creatinine normal OR
  • Creatinine clearance at least 60 mL/min


  • No active heart disease
  • No myocardial infarction within the past 3 months
  • No severe coronary artery disease
  • No arrhythmias (other than atrial flutter or fibrillation) requiring medication
  • No uncontrolled congestive heart failure


  • No dyspnea at rest or with minimal exertion
  • No severe pulmonary disease requiring supplemental oxygen


  • Not pregnant or nursing
  • Negative pregnancy test
  • Fertile patients must use effective contraception
  • No neuropathy grade 2 or greater
  • No active uncontrolled infection

    • Infections under active treatment and controlled by antibiotics are allowed
  • No other life-threatening illness
  • No psychiatric illness that would preclude study compliance


Biologic therapy

  • See Disease Characteristics
  • At least 1 week since prior hematopoietic growth factor (e.g., epoetin alfa, filgrastim [G-CSF], sargramostim [GM-CSF], interleukin-3, and interleukin-11)
  • No concurrent immunotherapy


  • Recovered from prior chemotherapy (no greater than grade 1 chronic toxic effects)
  • At least 72 hours since prior hydroxyurea
  • At least 3 weeks since prior myelosuppressive cytotoxic agents (6 weeks for mitomycin or nitrosoureas)
  • No more than 12 prior courses of fludarabine
  • No more than 3 prior cytotoxic chemotherapy regimens
  • No other concurrent chemotherapy

Endocrine therapy

  • Not specified


  • At least 2 weeks since prior radiotherapy
  • No concurrent radiotherapy


  • Not specified


  • At least 1 week since prior non-myelosuppressive treatment
  • No more than 4 prior induction regimens
  • No other concurrent therapy

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT00077558

United States, Georgia
Blood and Marrow Transplant Group of Georgia
Atlanta, Georgia, United States, 30342-4777
United States, Maryland
Greenebaum Cancer Center at University of Maryland Medical Center
Baltimore, Maryland, United States, 21201
Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins
Baltimore, Maryland, United States, 21231
United States, Texas
M.D. Anderson Cancer Center at University of Texas
Houston, Texas, United States, 77030-4095
Sponsors and Collaborators
Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Study Chair: Judith E. Karp, MD Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins

Publications of Results: Identifier: NCT00077558     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: CDR0000352322, J0357
U01CA070095 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
P30CA006973 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
First Posted: February 12, 2004    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: March 10, 2010
Last Verified: March 2010

Keywords provided by Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins:
accelerated phase chronic myelogenous leukemia
blastic phase chronic myelogenous leukemia
relapsing chronic myelogenous leukemia
previously treated myelodysplastic syndromes
secondary myelodysplastic syndromes
refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia
recurrent adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia
prolymphocytic leukemia
refractory anemia with excess blasts
chronic myelomonocytic leukemia
recurrent adult acute myeloid leukemia
secondary acute myeloid leukemia
adult acute minimally differentiated myeloid leukemia (M0)
adult acute monocytic leukemia (M5b)
adult acute erythroid leukemia (M6)
adult acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (M7)
adult acute myeloblastic leukemia with maturation (M2)
adult acute myeloblastic leukemia without maturation (M1)
adult acute myelomonocytic leukemia (M4)
adult acute monoblastic leukemia (M5a)
adult acute promyelocytic leukemia (M3)
adult acute eosinophilic leukemia
adult acute basophilic leukemia
atypical chronic myeloid leukemia
myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative disease, unclassifiable
adult acute myeloid leukemia with t(8;21)(q22;q22)
adult acute myeloid leukemia with t(16;16)(p13;q22)
adult acute myeloid leukemia with inv(16)(p13;q22)
adult acute myeloid leukemia with 11q23 (MLL) abnormalities
adult acute myeloid leukemia with t(15;17)(q22;q12)

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Myelodysplastic Syndromes
Myeloproliferative Disorders
Myelodysplastic-Myeloproliferative Diseases
Pathologic Processes
Neoplasms by Histologic Type
Bone Marrow Diseases
Hematologic Diseases
Precancerous Conditions
Fludarabine phosphate
Antineoplastic Agents
Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Immunosuppressive Agents
Immunologic Factors
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Antiviral Agents
Anti-Infective Agents