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A Study of HIV Levels During Pregnancy and After Childbirth

This study has been completed.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
First Posted: July 22, 2002
Last Update Posted: July 24, 2012
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)

The purpose of this study is to find out if HIV-infected pregnant women taking anti-HIV drugs have an increased amount of HIV in their blood (viral load) after having the baby.

The purpose of A5153s, a substudy of A5150, is to characterize two anti-HIV drugs (nelfinavir [NFV] and lopinavir/ritonavir [LPV/r]) in HIV-infected women during pregnancy and after childbirth.

Sometimes pregnant women have an increase in their HIV viral load after their baby is born. This study will try to find out how often this happens. It will also examine possible reasons why the increase in viral load occurs.

HIV Infections Pregnancy

Study Type: Observational
Official Title: A Prospective Observational Study of Virologic and Immunologic Changes in HIV-Infected Women During the Postpartum Period

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):

Estimated Enrollment: 129
Detailed Description:

Limited data suggest that HIV-infected pregnant women develop postpartum viral rebound. However, viral load changes in the postpartum period have not been adequately characterized. Changes in adherence to antiretroviral therapy, pregnancy-related changes in pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral medications, and decline in immune competence are mechanisms by which postpartum viral load rebound may occur. This study is designed to characterize the incidence and magnitude of postpartum viral rebound during the initial 24 weeks postpartum and to explore the mechanisms and consequences of viral rebound.

Eligible patients are evaluated at gestational weeks 34 and 36, at delivery, and at regular visits for 96 weeks postpartum. Most evaluations include a medical history, physical exam, laboratory tests, and adherence and quality-of-life questionnaires. Viral load and CD4/CD8 cell counts are measured frequently.

Patients are expected to receive at least 8 weeks of stable HAART before delivery, and to continue HAART throughout the remainder of the study. The choice of HAART is left to the primary provider. No antiretroviral drugs are provided by this study.

Patients participating in the A5153s substudy receive either NFV or LPV/r as part of their HAART. Pharmacokinetic blood sampling takes place at 36 weeks gestation, 6 weeks postpartum, and 24 weeks postpartum. Patients record the administration times and doses of their NFV or LPV/r for 48 hours prior to each substudy visit, and hold their regularly scheduled doses of antiretroviral medications on substudy days. Patients arrive at the clinic fasting (no food or drink for the previous 8 hours) and are given a standardized breakfast prior to supervised administration of their NFV or LPV/r dose. An intravenous catheter is placed in an arm vein for blood collection at pre-dose and 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours post-dose.


Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   13 Years and older   (Child, Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Female
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria

Patients may be eligible for this study if they:

  • Are age 13 or older.
  • Are between 22 and 30 weeks pregnant.
  • Have had their pregnancy confirmed by ultrasound at 14 weeks gestation or later.
  • Are infected with HIV.
  • Are planning to receive at least 8 weeks of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) by the time they have their baby.
  • Are available for follow-up for the duration of the study.

Exclusion Criteria

Patients may not be eligible for this study if they:

  • Intend to terminate their pregnancy.
  • Intend to breast-feed their baby.
  • Are carrying a baby with major abnormalities, including spina bifida, anencephaly, hydrops, or ascites.
  • Have taken certain medications.
  • Are enrolled in other studies that require large blood draws.
  • Will be taking anti-HIV drugs only to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV, and not to treat the maternal infection itself.
  • Actively abuse drugs or alcohol in a way that would interfere with participation in the study.
  Contacts and Locations
Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT00041964

  Show 32 Study Locations
Sponsors and Collaborators
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Study Chair: Beverly Sha
Study Chair: Alice Stek
  More Information

Sha BE, Tierney C, Cohn SE, Sun X, Coombs RW, Frenkel LM, Kalams SA, Aweeka FT, Bastow B, Bardeguez A, Kmack A, Stek A; Aids Clinical Trials Group ACTG A5150 Team. Postpartum viral load rebound in HIV-1-infected women treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy: AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol A5150. HIV Clin Trials. 2011 Jan-Feb;12(1):9-23. doi: 10.1310/hct1201-9.
Melvin AJ, Burchett SK, Watts DH, Hitti J, Hughes JP, McLellan CL, King PD, Johnson EJ, Williams BL, Frenkel LM, Coombs RW. Effect of pregnancy and zidovudine therapy on viral load in HIV-1-infected women. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1997 Mar 1;14(3):232-6.
Rich KC, Siegel JN, Jennings C, Rydman RJ, Landay AL. CD4+ lymphocytes in perinatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection: evidence for pregnancy-induced immune depression in uninfected and HIV-infected women. J Infect Dis. 1995 Nov;172(5):1221-7.
Cao Y, Krogstad P, Korber BT, Koup RA, Muldoon M, Macken C, Song JL, Jin Z, Zhao JQ, Clapp S, Chen IS, Ho DD, Ammann AJ. Maternal HIV-1 viral load and vertical transmission of infection: the Ariel Project for the prevention of HIV transmission from mother to infant. Nat Med. 1997 May;3(5):549-52.
Burns DN, Landesman S, Minkoff H, Wright DJ, Waters D, Mitchell RM, Rubinstein A, Willoughby A, Goedert JJ. The influence of pregnancy on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection: antepartum and postpartum changes in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral load. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998 Feb;178(2):355-9.

Responsible Party: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00041964     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: ACTG A5150
ACTG A5153s
AACTG A5153s
First Submitted: July 19, 2002
First Posted: July 22, 2002
Last Update Posted: July 24, 2012
Last Verified: July 2012

Keywords provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):
Pregnancy Trimester, Third
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious
HIV Protease Inhibitors
Viral Load

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
HIV Infections
Lentivirus Infections
Retroviridae Infections
RNA Virus Infections
Virus Diseases
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes
Immune System Diseases

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