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A Comparison of Two Ways to Manage Anti-HIV Treatment (The SMART Study)

This study has been completed.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
First Posted: December 5, 2001
Last Update Posted: November 25, 2009
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
Information provided by:
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
The purpose of this study is to compare two ways of using anti-HIV drugs to help health care providers and patients decide how to best use anti-HIV treatments over many years. Many health care providers now treat patients with daily drugs to keep the viral load as low as possible. This approach helps patients with CD4 counts less than 200-250 cells/mm3 live longer without serious diseases. But it is not known if this is the best way to treat patients with higher CD4 counts. There is information suggesting that these patients may be able to wait to use anti-HIV drugs while CD4 counts are above 250 cells/mm3. Because this study will be carried out over several years, it will provide information on the long-term advantages and disadvantages of these two treatment strategies.

HIV Infections

Study Type: Observational
Study Design: Time Perspective: Prospective
Official Title: A Large, Simple Trial Comparing Two Strategies for Management of Anti-Retroviral Therapy (The SMART Study)

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):

Estimated Enrollment: 6000
Detailed Description:

Implementation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) guidelines, which emphasize maximal and durable suppression of viral load for the majority of individuals infected with HIV, has resulted in a substantial decline in morbidity and mortality. However, many asymptomatic patients are not at immediate risk of serious opportunistic diseases, the effectiveness of ART wanes over time due to HIV drug resistance, and there are short- and long-term toxicities of treatment. This motivates a comparison of two strategies: one which conserves treatments by deferring their use while the risk of opportunistic disease is low and one which aims for sustained virologic suppression, irrespective of disease risk.

In this large, long-term trial, patients will be randomly assigned to either the drug conservation (DC) or viral suppression (VS) group. Patients will be enrolled over a 3-year period and followed for an average of 7.5 years. The DC group will stop or defer ART until CD4 cell count declines to below 250 cells/mm3; they will then receive treatment to increase CD4 count to greater than 350 cells/mm3 followed by episodic ART based on CD4 cell count. The VS group will use ART to maintain viral load as low as possible, irrespective of CD4 cell count. Patients will be seen Months 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12, then every 4 months for data collection visits. All available ARTs, including immunomodulators, and resistance testing may be used by patients in both treatment groups. Selected subsamples of patients enrolled in the study will be followed with more intensive data collection for secondary outcomes relating to cost and health care utilization, quality of life, HIV transmission risk behaviors, and metabolic complications of treatment.


Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.

Ages Eligible for Study:   13 Years and older   (Child, Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Note: Enrollment into this trial was halted 01/11/06.

Inclusion Criteria:

  • HIV infection
  • CD4 cell count greater than 350 cells/mm3 within 45 days of study entry
  • Willing to start, change, or stop antiretroviral therapy
  • Acceptable methods of contraception
  • Good health at the time of study entry
  • Available for the study for at least 6 months
  • Able, in the clinician's opinion, to comply with the protocol

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Currently participating in the MDR-HIV, NvR study, or another study which is not consistent with one of the treatment groups in this study. CPCRA FIRST participants may be screened for SMART after August 8, 2005 and can be randomized into SMART on or after September 19, 2005.
  • Pregnant or breast-feeding
  Contacts and Locations
Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT00027352

  Show 223 Study Locations
Sponsors and Collaborators
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Study Chair: Wafaa El-Sadr, MD, MPH Harlem AIDS Treatment Group, Harlem Hospital Center
Study Chair: James Neaton, PhD CPCRA Statistcal and Data Management Center / CCBR
  More Information

Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
Larson GS, Carey C, Grarup J, Hudson F, Sachi K, Vjecha MJ, Gordin F; INSIGHT Group. Lessons learned: Infrastructure development and financial management for large, publicly funded, international trials. Clin Trials. 2016 Apr;13(2):127-36. doi: 10.1177/1740774515625974. Epub 2016 Feb 8.
Nordell AD, McKenna M, Borges ÁH, Duprez D, Neuhaus J, Neaton JD; INSIGHT SMART, ESPRIT Study Groups; SILCAAT Scientific Committee. Severity of cardiovascular disease outcomes among patients with HIV is related to markers of inflammation and coagulation. J Am Heart Assoc. 2014 May 28;3(3):e000844. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.114.000844.
Lucas GM, Cozzi-Lepri A, Wyatt CM, Post FA, Bormann AM, Crum-Cianflone NF, Ross MJ; INSIGHT SMART Study Group. Glomerular filtration rate estimated using creatinine, cystatin C or both markers and the risk of clinical events in HIV-infected individuals. HIV Med. 2014 Feb;15(2):116-23. doi: 10.1111/hiv.12087. Epub 2013 Sep 11.
Baker JV, Brummel-Ziedins K, Neuhaus J, Duprez D, Cummins N, Dalmau D, DeHovitz J, Lehmann C, Sullivan A, Woolley I, Kuller L, Neaton JD, Tracy RP; INSIGHT SMART Study Team. HIV replication alters the composition of extrinsic pathway coagulation factors and increases thrombin generation. J Am Heart Assoc. 2013 Jul 29;2(4):e000264. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.113.000264.
Hoy J, Grund B, Roediger M, Ensrud KE, Brar I, Colebunders R, Castro ND, Johnson M, Sharma A, Carr A; INSIGHT SMART Body Composition Substudy Group. Interruption or deferral of antiretroviral therapy reduces markers of bone turnover compared with continuous therapy: The SMART body composition substudy. J Bone Miner Res. 2013 Jun;28(6):1264-74. doi: 10.1002/jbmr.1861.
Zetterberg E, Neuhaus J, Baker JV, Somboonwit C, Llibre JM, Palfreeman A, Chini M, Lundgren JD; INSIGHT SMART Study Group. Platelet count kinetics following interruption of antiretroviral treatment. AIDS. 2013 Jan 2;27(1):59-68. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32835a104d.
Mocroft A, Neuhaus J, Peters L, Ryom L, Bickel M, Grint D, Koirala J, Szymczak A, Lundgren J, Ross MJ, Wyatt CM; INSIGHT SMART Study Group; ESPRIT Study Group. Hepatitis B and C co-infection are independent predictors of progressive kidney disease in HIV-positive, antiretroviral-treated adults. PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e40245. Epub 2012 Jul 20.
Baker JV, Neuhaus J, Duprez D, Cooper DA, Hoy J, Kuller L, Lampe FC, Liappis A, Friis-Moller N, Otvos J, Paton NI, Tracy R, Neaton JD; INSIGHT SMART Study Group. Inflammation predicts changes in high-density lipoprotein particles and apolipoprotein A1 following initiation of antiretroviral therapy. AIDS. 2011 Nov 13;25(17):2133-42. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32834be088.
Mocroft A, Lifson AR, Touloumi G, Neuhaus J, Fox Z, Palfreeman A, Vjecha MJ, Hodder S, De Wit S, Lundgren JD, Phillips AN; INSIGHT SMART Study Group. Haemoglobin and anaemia in the SMART study. Antivir Ther. 2011;16(3):329-37. doi: 10.3851/IMP1746.
Duprez DA, Neuhaus J, Tracy R, Kuller LH, Deeks SG, Orkin C, Stoehr A, Woolley IJ, Neaton JD; INSIGHT SMART Group. N-terminal-proB-type natriuretic peptide predicts cardiovascular disease events in HIV-infected patients. AIDS. 2011 Mar 13;25(5):651-7. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32834404a1.
Lampe FC, Duprez DA, Kuller LH, Tracy R, Otvos J, Stroes E, Cooper DA, Hoy J, Paton NI, Friis-Møller N, Neuhaus J, Liappis AP, Phillips AN; INSIGHT SMART Study Group. Changes in lipids and lipoprotein particle concentrations after interruption of antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010 Jul;54(3):275-84.
Dore GJ, Soriano V, Rockstroh J, Kupfer B, Tedaldi E, Peters L, Neuhaus J, Puoti M, Klein MB, Mocroft A, Clotet B, Lundgren JD; SMART INSIGHT study group. Frequent hepatitis B virus rebound among HIV-hepatitis B virus-coinfected patients following antiretroviral therapy interruption. AIDS. 2010 Mar 27;24(6):857-65. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e328334bddb.
Rodger AJ, Fox Z, Lundgren JD, Kuller LH, Boesecke C, Gey D, Skoutelis A, Goetz MB, Phillips AN; INSIGHT Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMART) Study Group. Activation and coagulation biomarkers are independent predictors of the development of opportunistic disease in patients with HIV infection. J Infect Dis. 2009 Sep 15;200(6):973-83. doi: 10.1086/605447.
Grund B, Peng G, Gibert CL, Hoy JF, Isaksson RL, Shlay JC, Martinez E, Reiss P, Visnegarwala F, Carr AD; INSIGHT SMART Body Composition Substudy Group. Continuous antiretroviral therapy decreases bone mineral density. AIDS. 2009 Jul 31;23(12):1519-29. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32832c1792.
Duprez DA, Kuller LH, Tracy R, Otvos J, Cooper DA, Hoy J, Neuhaus J, Paton NI, Friis-Moller N, Lampe F, Liappis AP, Neaton JD; INSIGHT SMART Study Group. Lipoprotein particle subclasses, cardiovascular disease and HIV infection. Atherosclerosis. 2009 Dec;207(2):524-9. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2009.05.001. Epub 2009 May 13.
Mocroft A, Wyatt C, Szczech L, Neuhaus J, El-Sadr W, Tracy R, Kuller L, Shlipak M, Angus B, Klinker H, Ross M; INSIGHT SMART Study Group. Interruption of antiretroviral therapy is associated with increased plasma cystatin C. AIDS. 2009 Jan 2;23(1):71-82. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32831cc129.
Fox Z, Phillips A, Cohen C, Neuhaus J, Baxter J, Emery S, Hirschel B, Hullsiek KH, Stephan C, Lundgren J; SMART Study Group. Viral resuppression and detection of drug resistance following interruption of a suppressive non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based regimen. AIDS. 2008 Nov 12;22(17):2279-89. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e328311d16f.
Tedaldi E, Peters L, Neuhaus J, Puoti M, Rockstroh J, Klein MB, Dore GJ, Mocroft A, Soriano V, Clotet B, Lundgren JD; SMART Study Group and International Network for Strategic Initiatives in Global HIV Trials (INSIGHT). Opportunistic disease and mortality in patients coinfected with hepatitis B or C virus in the strategic management of antiretroviral therapy (SMART) study. Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Dec 1;47(11):1468-75. doi: 10.1086/593102.
Kuller LH, Tracy R, Belloso W, De Wit S, Drummond F, Lane HC, Ledergerber B, Lundgren J, Neuhaus J, Nixon D, Paton NI, Neaton JD; INSIGHT SMART Study Group. Inflammatory and coagulation biomarkers and mortality in patients with HIV infection. PLoS Med. 2008 Oct 21;5(10):e203. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0050203.
SMART Study Group, El-Sadr WM, Grund B, Neuhaus J, Babiker A, Cohen CJ, Darbyshire J, Emery S, Lundgren JD, Phillips A, Neaton JD. Risk for opportunistic disease and death after reinitiating continuous antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV previously receiving episodic therapy: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2008 Sep 2;149(5):289-99.
Strategies for Management of Anti-Retroviral Therapy/INSIGHT; DAD Study Groups. Use of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and risk of myocardial infarction in HIV-infected patients. AIDS. 2008 Sep 12;22(14):F17-24. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32830fe35e.
Gordin FM, Roediger MP, Girard PM, Lundgren JD, Miro JM, Palfreeman A, Rodriguez-Barradas MC, Wolff MJ, Easterbrook PJ, Clezy K, Slater LN. Pneumonia in HIV-infected persons: increased risk with cigarette smoking and treatment interruption. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008 Sep 15;178(6):630-6. doi: 10.1164/rccm.200804-617OC. Epub 2008 Jul 10.
Phillips AN, Carr A, Neuhaus J, Visnegarwala F, Prineas R, Burman WJ, Williams I, Drummond F, Duprez D, Belloso WH, Goebel FD, Grund B, Hatzakis A, Vera J, Lundgren JD. Interruption of antiretroviral therapy and risk of cardiovascular disease in persons with HIV-1 infection: exploratory analyses from the SMART trial. Antivir Ther. 2008;13(2):177-87.
Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMART) Study Group, Lundgren JD, Babiker A, El-Sadr W, Emery S, Grund B, Neaton JD, Neuhaus J, Phillips AN. Inferior clinical outcome of the CD4+ cell count-guided antiretroviral treatment interruption strategy in the SMART study: role of CD4+ Cell counts and HIV RNA levels during follow-up. J Infect Dis. 2008 Apr 15;197(8):1145-55. doi: 10.1086/529523.
Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMART) Study Group, Emery S, Neuhaus JA, Phillips AN, Babiker A, Cohen CJ, Gatell JM, Girard PM, Grund B, Law M, Losso MH, Palfreeman A, Wood R. Major clinical outcomes in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive participants and in those not receiving ART at baseline in the SMART study. J Infect Dis. 2008 Apr 15;197(8):1133-44. doi: 10.1086/586713.
Carr A, Grund B, Neuhaus J, El-Sadr WM, Grandits G, Gibert C, Prineas RJ; SMART Study Investigators. Asymptomatic myocardial ischaemia in HIV-infected adults. AIDS. 2008 Jan 11;22(2):257-67.
Burman WJ, Grund B, Roediger MP, Friedland G, Darbyshire J, Wu AW; SMART Study Group. The impact of episodic CD4 cell count-guided antiretroviral therapy on quality of life. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008 Feb 1;47(2):185-93.
Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMART) Study Group, El-Sadr WM, Lundgren J, Neaton JD, Gordin F, Abrams D, Arduino RC, Babiker A, Burman W, Clumeck N, Cohen CJ, Cohn D, Cooper D, Darbyshire J, Emery S, Fätkenheuer G, Gazzard B, Grund B, Hoy J, Klingman K, Losso M, Markowitz N, Neuhaus J, Phillips A, Rappoport C. CD4+ count-guided interruption of antiretroviral treatment. N Engl J Med. 2006 Nov 30;355(22):2283-96.

ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00027352     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: CPCRA 065
First Submitted: December 4, 2001
First Posted: December 5, 2001
Last Update Posted: November 25, 2009
Last Verified: December 2008

Keywords provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):
Physician's Practice Patterns
Anti-HIV Agents

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
HIV Infections
Lentivirus Infections
Retroviridae Infections
RNA Virus Infections
Virus Diseases
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes
Immune System Diseases

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