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Radiation Therapy With or Without Bicalutamide for Recurrent pT3N0 Prostate Cancer After Radical Prostatectomy

This study is ongoing, but not recruiting participants.
Sponsor:
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00002874
First Posted: January 27, 2003
Last Update Posted: August 18, 2017
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
Collaborators:
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Southwest Oncology Group
NRG Oncology
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Radiation Therapy Oncology Group
  Purpose

RATIONALE: Radiation therapy uses high-energy x-rays to damage tumor cells. Androgens can stimulate the growth of prostate cancer cells. Hormone therapy using bicalutamide may fight prostate cancer by reducing the production of androgens. It is not yet known if radiation therapy is more effective with or without bicalutamide for prostate cancer.

PURPOSE: Randomized phase III trial to compare the effectiveness of radiation therapy with or without bicalutamide in treating patients who have stage II or stage III prostate cancer and elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels following radical prostatectomy.


Condition Intervention Phase
Prostate Cancer Drug: bicalutamide Radiation: radiation therapy Drug: placebo Phase 3

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A PHASE III TRIAL OF RADIATION THERAPY WITH OR WITHOUT CASODEX IN PATIENTS WITH PSA ELEVATION FOLLOWING RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY FOR pT3N0 CARCINOMA OF THE PROSTATE

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by Radiation Therapy Oncology Group:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Overall Survival (12-year Rates Reported) [ Time Frame: From date of randomization to 12 years. ]

    Overall survival rates were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method, with failure defined as death by any cause. Four-year follow-up was required of all patients, twelve-year rates are reported. Four-year follow-up was required of all patients, but twelve-year rates were reported.

    Patients are followed until death.



Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Non-Prostate Cancer Death (12-year Rates Reported) [ Time Frame: From date of randomization to 12 years. ]

    Non-prostate cancer death rates were estimated by the cumulative incidence method, with failure defined as any death that does not fall into the following categories: death due to prostate cancer or complications of protocol treatment (centrally reviewed), death with known progressive metastatic disease while on salvage hormone therapy, or death with a known rising PSA while on salvage hormone therapy. All other deaths are considered competing risks. Patients alive at time of analysis were censored. Any other death was treated as a competing risk. Four-year follow-up was required of all patients, but twelve-year rates were reported.

    Patients are followed until death. "Non-Prostate cancer death" is a more accurate wording for the protocol endpoint of "non-disease-specific survival", and matches the protocol definition.


  • Second PSA Recurrence (12-year Rates Reported) [ Time Frame: From date of randomization to 12 years. ]
    Second PSA recurrence (SPSAR) rates (i.e. first PSA failure on study) were estimated by the cumulative incidence method, with failure defined as the first occurrence of one of the following events: 1. Increase in PSA following protocol treatment according to the following criteria met during protocol treatment: If PSA dropped to undetectable level (<0.2 ng/ml) during protocol treatment (PT) then failure = increase after PT to >= 0.5 ng/ml ; If PSA decreased to a detectable level (≥ 0.2 ng/ml) during PT, then failure = increase PT of >= 0.3 ng/ml above the lowest detectable level; If PSA did not decrease during PT then failure = increase in PSA after PT of >= 0.5 ng/ml above entry PSA level. 2. The start of salvage hormone therapy. Patients alive without SPSAR at time of analysis were censored. Death without SPSAR was treated as a competing risk. Four-year follow-up was required of all patients, but twelve-year rates were reported. Patients are followed until death.

  • Third PSA Recurrence (12-year Rates Reported) [ Time Frame: From start of salvage hormone therapy to 12 years. ]
    Third PSA recurrence rates (i.e. second PSA failure on study) were estimated by the cumulative incidence method, with failure defined as PSA value of 0.5ng/ml or higher or any disease progression after starting salvage hormone therapy. Patients alive without third PSA recurrence at time of analysis were censored. Death without third PSA recurrence was treated as a competing risk. Four-year follow-up was required of all patients, but twelve-year rates were reported. Patients are followed until death.

  • PSA Complete Response at End of Protocol Treatment [ Time Frame: End of protocol treatment, which is planned to last for two years ]
    Complete response is defined as a drop in PSA on protocol treatment to less than 0.2 ng/ml. Note that when the study opened many institutions could not detect PSA < 05 ng/ml.

  • Distant Failure (12-year Rates Reported) [ Time Frame: From date of randomization to 12 years. ]
    Distant failure rates were estimated by the cumulative incidence method, with failure defined as the first occurrence of distant failure. Patients alive without distant metastases at time of analysis were censored. Death without distant metastasis was treated as a competing risk. Four-year follow-up was required of all patients, but twelve-year rates were reported. Patients are followed until death.

  • Prostate Cancer Death (12-year Rates Reported) [ Time Frame: From date of randomization to 12 years. ]
    Prostate cancer death rates were estimated by the cumulative incidence method, with failure defined as death due to prostate cancer or complications of protocol treatment (centrally reviewed), death with known progressive metastatic disease while on salvage hormone therapy, or death with a known rising PSA while on salvage hormone therapy. Patients alive at time of analysis were censored. Any other death was treated as a competing risk. Four-year follow-up was required of all patients, but twelve-year rates were reported. Patients are followed until death. "Prostate cancer death" is a more accurate wording for the protocol endpoint of "disease-specific survival", and matches the protocol definition.

  • Progression-free Survival (12-year Rates Reported) [ Time Frame: From date of randomization to 12 years. ]
    Progress-free survival rates were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method, with failure defined as the first occurrence of PSA failure, local, regional or distant failure, or death from any cause. Patients alive without progression at time of analysis were censored. Four-year follow-up was required of all patients, but twelve-year rates were reported. Patients are followed until death. "Progression-free Survival" is more accurate wording for the protocol endpoint of "Freedom from Progression", and matches the protocol definition.

  • Grade 3+ Toxicity [ Time Frame: From date of randomization to four years. ]
    Adverse events are graded using the Cooperative Group Common Toxicity Criteria and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) Radiation Morbidity Scoring. Grade refers to severity, assigning Grades 1 through 5 based on this general guideline: Grade 0 None, Grade 1 Mild, Grade 2 Moderate, Grade 3 Severe, Grade 4 Life-threatening or disabling, Grade 5 Death related toxicity. Toxicities reported to have occurred within 90 days from the start of radiotherapy are reported as "Acute Radiotherapy", all later toxicities are reported as "Hormone therapy and late radiotherapy toxicity". The highest grade toxicity event per subject is counted within each of these time periods. Four-year follow-up was required of all patients; patients are followed until death.


Enrollment: 840
Study Start Date: February 1998
Primary Completion Date: August 2015 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Bicalutamide
Radiation therapy + bicalutamide
Drug: bicalutamide
One (150 mg) tablet by mouth daily for two years beginning immediately upon, or just prior to, the initiation of irradiation.
Other Name: Casodex
Radiation: radiation therapy
64.8 Gy in 36 fractions (1.8 Gy in 5 daily sessions per week) to the original prostate volume, the tumor resection bed, and the proximal membranous urethra.
Placebo Comparator: Placebo
Radiation therapy + placebo
Radiation: radiation therapy
64.8 Gy in 36 fractions (1.8 Gy in 5 daily sessions per week) to the original prostate volume, the tumor resection bed, and the proximal membranous urethra.
Drug: placebo
One tablet by mouth daily for two years beginning immediately upon, or just prior to, the initiation of irradiation.

  Eligibility

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.


Ages Eligible for Study:   Child, Adult, Senior
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Male
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Conditions for Patient Eligibility:

  • The patient on entry will have no clinical evidence of disease by physical exam or by imaging studies. A positive ProstaScint scan alone without a confirmatory biopsy must not be used to exclude a patient. Eligible patients will be those who have undergone a radical prostatectomy (either retropubic or perineal) and pelvic lymphadenectomy (either open or laparoscopic) for carcinoma of the prostate, pathologic stage T3N0, or pT2 pN0 with positive inked resection margin, at least 12 weeks prior to study entry.
  • Pathological T2 patients without positive margins, who are also pathologic N0 with prostatic fossa/anastamosis biopsy at the time of rising PSA documenting recurrent cancer, are eligible.
  • At entry, the PSA must be between 0.2 and 4.0ng/ml, inclusive.
  • A post-prostatectomy radioisotopic bone scan which was done within 16 weeks prior to entry must reveal no evidence of metastatic disease.
  • Patient must be evaluated by both the radiation oncologist and the urologist prior to entry and judged to be a suitable candidate for radiation and hormonal therapy.
  • Patient must have Karnofsky performance status >= 80.
  • Patients must have a life expectancy in excess of 10 years.
  • Patients must have, within 6 weeks prior to entry, a hemoglobin (Hgb) of >=10 gm, a white blood cell (WBC) count of >= 4000 cells/ml3, a platelet count of >= 100,000 cells/ml3, a serum bilirubin <= the institutional upper limit of normal, a serum serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) or serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) of <= 2.5 times the institutional upper limit of normal, and a serum creatinine of <= 2.0 times the institutional upper limit of normal.
  • A post-prostatectomy pelvic computerized tomography (CT) scan, within 16 weeks prior to randomization, must reveal no evidence of metastatic disease.
  • Patients must sign a study-specific informed consent form.
  • Patients with prior invasive cancers are eligible if disease free for at least 5 years; prior or concurrent basal or squamous cell skin cancer is eligible.

Conditions for Patient Ineligibility:

  • Pathologic stage T2 (without positive inked resection margin) or less except as stated in Section 3.1.1.1.
  • Pathologic lymph node stage of pN1 or greater.
  • An entry serum PSA of > 4.0ng/ml.
  • Patients with persistant urinary extravasation after prostatectomy.
  • Patients who have been previously treated with any hormonal therapy after prostatectomy.
  • Patients who have previously been treated with radiation therapy or biologic therapy for prostate cancer.
  • Karnofsky performance status < 80.
  • Treatment start > 4 weeks after randomization.
  • Prior chemotherapy for any reason.
  Contacts and Locations
Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT00002874


  Show 240 Study Locations
Sponsors and Collaborators
Radiation Therapy Oncology Group
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Southwest Oncology Group
NRG Oncology
Investigators
Principal Investigator: William U. Shipley, MD Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston
Study Chair: Himanshu R Lukka, MD Juravinski Cancer Centre at Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton, ON
Study Chair: Pierre P Major, MD Juravinski Cancer Centre at Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton, ON
Study Chair: Niall M Heney, MD Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston
Study Chair: David J Grignon, MD Indiana University, Indianapolis
  More Information

Publications:
Responsible Party: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00002874     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: RTOG-9601
CDR0000065158
RTOG-R9601
First Submitted: November 1, 1999
First Posted: January 27, 2003
Results First Submitted: June 6, 2017
Results First Posted: August 18, 2017
Last Update Posted: August 18, 2017
Last Verified: July 2017

Keywords provided by Radiation Therapy Oncology Group:
stage IIB prostate cancer
stage IIA prostate cancer
stage III prostate cancer
recurrent prostate cancer

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Prostatic Neoplasms
Genital Neoplasms, Male
Urogenital Neoplasms
Neoplasms by Site
Neoplasms
Genital Diseases, Male
Prostatic Diseases
Bicalutamide
Androgen Antagonists
Hormone Antagonists
Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Antineoplastic Agents