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A Study of Nevirapine for the Prevention of HIV Transmission From Mothers to Their Babies

This study has been completed.
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Identifier:
First received: November 2, 1999
Last updated: March 30, 2012
Last verified: March 2012

The purpose of this study is to see if giving the anti-HIV drug nevirapine (NVP) to HIV-positive pregnant women and their babies can help reduce the chance that a mother will give HIV to her baby during delivery. This study will also test the safety of the drug and see how well it is tolerated by the mother and her baby.

Previous studies suggest that NVP is a promising medication for blocking HIV transmission from HIV-positive mothers to their babies.

Condition Intervention Phase
HIV Infections Pregnancy Drug: Nevirapine Phase 3

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Masking: Double
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Phase III Randomized, Blinded Study of Nevirapine for the Prevention of Maternal-Fetal Transmission in Pregnant HIV-Infected Women

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):

Estimated Enrollment: 2009
Study Completion Date: May 2001
Detailed Description:

Nevirapine has several properties that make it an attractive candidate for antiretroviral therapy to interrupt HIV-1 transmission in the intrapartum and early postpartum period. The pharmacokinetic profile suggested that nevirapine would be rapidly absorbed and transferred to the infant in utero when given during labor and delivery. In addition, nevirapine has been shown to penetrate cell-free virions and inactivate virion-associated reverse transcriptase (RT) in situ. This property would be potentially useful in inactivating cell-free virions in the genital tract as well as in breast milk. These characteristics of nevirapine suggest that treatment of an HIV-infected pregnant woman in labor with an oral dose of nevirapine may provide a prophylactic level of nevirapine in the infant during the time of exposure to virus in the birth canal and/or maternal blood. In addition, nevirapine may inactivate the virion-associated RT present in cell-free virions in the genital tract or breast milk.

Women are randomized to receive either NVP or the corresponding placebo in active labor. Women are randomized at any time after their 32nd week gestation [AS PER AMENDMENT 1/13/98: 28th week gestation] [AS PER AMENDMENT 2/23/00: 20th week gestation]. The randomization is stratified using two factors: (1) use of [AS PER AMENDMENT 2/23/00: current or anticipated] antiretroviral therapy during the current pregnancy (no therapy at all; monotherapy for any duration; multi-agent therapy for any duration), and (2) CD4 cell count at the time of randomization (less than 200 cells; 200 - 399 cells; 400 cells or greater). Mothers are followed on study for 4 to 6 weeks postpartum. Mothers are also encouraged to follow the regimen of zidovudine (ZDV) outlined in the Office of Public Health and Science (PHS) treatment guidelines for both themselves and their infants. Infants are administered either NVP or placebo between 48 and 72 hours of life. The infant's study drug is the same as the mother's randomized treatment assignment. Infants are dosed with the study drug according to their randomization group regardless of whether the mother received the study drug. Infants are followed for 4 to 6 weeks, and are tested for HIV at 4 to 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months.


Ages Eligible for Study:   13 Years and older   (Child, Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria

Women may be eligible for this study if they:

  • Are HIV-positive.
  • Are at least 20 weeks pregnant. (This study has been changed. Women no longer have to be 28 weeks pregnant.)
  • Have consent from the child's father (if available).
  • Are at least 13 years old (consent of parent or guardian required if under 18).

Exclusion Criteria

Women will not be eligible for this study if they:

  • Have ever taken NNRTIs (nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors).
  • Are enrolled in another pregnancy treatment study.
  • Are allergic to benzodiazepines.
  • Have liver disease.
  • Plan to breast-feed.
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT00000869

  Show 72 Study Locations
Sponsors and Collaborators
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Study Chair: Alejandro Dorenbaum
Study Chair: John Sullivan
  More Information

Cunningham CK, Britto P, Gelber R, Dorenbaum A, Mofenson L, Culnane M, Sullivan JL. Genotypic resistance analysis in women participating in PACTG 316 with HIV-1 RNA >400 copies/ml. 8th Conf Retro and Opportun Infect. 2001 Feb 4-8 (abstract no 712)
Mirochnick M, Dorenbaum A, Cunningham-Schrader B, Cunningham C, Gelber R, Mofenson L, Sullivan J. Cord blood protease inhibitor (PI) concentrations in infants born to mothers receiving PIs. 8th Conf Retro and Opportun Infect. 2001 Feb 4-8 (abstract no 710)
Dorenbaum A. Report of results of PACTG 316: an international phase III trial of standard antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis plus nevirapine (NVP) for prevention of perinatal HIV transmission. 8th Conf Retro and Opportun Infect. 2001 Feb 4-8 (abstract no LB7)

Responsible Party: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Identifier: NCT00000869     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: ACTG 316
11290 ( Registry Identifier: DAIDS ES Registry Number )
Study First Received: November 2, 1999
Last Updated: March 30, 2012

Keywords provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):
Pregnancy Trimester, Third
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious
Administration, Oral
Disease Transmission, Vertical
Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
Anti-HIV Agents

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
HIV Infections
Lentivirus Infections
Retroviridae Infections
RNA Virus Infections
Virus Diseases
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes
Immune System Diseases
Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors
Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Anti-Retroviral Agents
Antiviral Agents
Anti-Infective Agents
Anti-HIV Agents
Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inducers
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inducers processed this record on September 21, 2017