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Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) Phases I (Trial), II (CAMPCS), III (CAMPCS/2), and IV (CAMPCS/3) (CAMP)

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00000575
First Posted: October 28, 1999
Last Update Posted: April 3, 2014
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
Collaborators:
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
CAMP Steering Committee
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
James Tonascia, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
  Purpose
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the long term effects of anti-inflammatory therapy compared to bronchodilator therapy on the course of asthma, particularly on lung function and bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and on physical and psychosocial growth and development.

Condition Intervention Phase
Asthma Lung Diseases Drug: Placebo Drug: Nedocromil Drug: Budesonide Phase 3

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Triple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Childhood Asthma Management Program

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by James Tonascia, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Pulmonary Function as Measured by Normalized FEV1 Over a 4-6 Year Period [ Time Frame: At the end of treatment, 4-6 years from baseline assessment ]
    Change in FEV1 % of predicted, post-bronchodilator use, from baseline to the end of treatment (4-6 years after randomization). Percent predicted determined from three separate published sets of reference equations for white, black, and Hispanic children - see NEJM 343: 1054-1062, 2000 for more details and references.


Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Bronchial Responsiveness to Serial Methacholine Concentrations Inhaled Into the Lungs [ Time Frame: 4-6 years from baseline ]
    Bronchial responsiveness to serial concentrations of inhaled methacholine solution (mg/ml) as measured by serial ratios of follow-up to baseline FEV1 (forced volume of air expired from the lungs in one second). A dose-response curve is calculated from the serial ratios in relation to the serial concentrations to determine PC20, the concentration associated with a 20% drop from baseline in FEV1; this PC20 is the outcome measure with units mg/ml of methacholine.

  • Change From Baseline in the Rate of Asthma Free Days [ Time Frame: 4-6 years from baseline ]
    Change from baseline proportion of days without asthma symptoms or other asthma related events to proportion of days during the 4-6 years of follow-up. Asthma free days were determined from daily asthma diaries kept from baseline to the end of treatment, 4-6 years later.

  • Need for Urgent Care for Asthma [ Time Frame: 4-6 years from baseline ]
    Counts during the period of treatment (4-6 years) of visits to emergency rooms or equivalent urgent care settings for asthma treatment.

  • Mortality [ Time Frame: 4-6 years from baseline ]
    Counts of deaths from asthma.

  • Change in Height From Baseline to End of Treatment, 4-6 Years Later [ Time Frame: 4-6 years from baseline ]
    Change in standing height from baseline to end of treatment. Standing height is measured three times without shoes using a calibrated Harpenden stadiometer; the average of the three repeated heights to the nearest 0.1 cm is the height measure at either baseline or end of treatment.

  • Standardized Depression Scale -- Children's Depression Inventory [ Time Frame: 4-6 years from baseline ]
    Change in total score on the Children's Depression Inventory from baseline to the end of treatment, 4-6 years later. The total score ranges from 0-54 with higher scores indicating greater levels of depression.


Enrollment: 1041
Study Start Date: September 1991
Study Completion Date: March 2012
Primary Completion Date: October 1999 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Active Comparator: 1 Budesonide
Budesonide (Pulmicort), two 100 microgram puffs bid + two microgram puffs albuterol (Ventolin) prn
Drug: Budesonide
Two 100 Og puffs bid + two 90 Og puffs albuterol prn.
Other Name: Pulmicort
Active Comparator: 2 Nedocromil
Nedocromil (Tilade), four 2 mg puffs bid + two 90 microgram puffs albuterol prn
Drug: Nedocromil
Four 2 mg puffs bid + two 90 Og puffs albuterol prn
Other Name: Tilade
Placebo Comparator: 3 Placebo
Two 100 microgram puffs budesonide placebo bid + two 90 microgram puffs albuterol prn or four 2 mg puffs nedocromil placebo bid + two 90 microgram puffs albuterol prn.
Drug: Placebo
Two 100 Og puffs budesonide placebo bid + two 90 Og puffs albuterol prn OR four 2 mg puffs nedocromil placebo bid + two 90 Og puffs albuterol prn.

  Show Detailed Description

  Eligibility

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.


Ages Eligible for Study:   5 Years to 12 Years   (Child)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion criteria:

  • Age 5 to 12 years at time of screening
  • Chronic asthma as evidenced by one or more of the following historical findings for at least 6 months during the past year:
  • Asthma symptoms at least 2 times per week
  • 2 or more usages per week of an inhaled bronchodilator
  • Daily asthma medication
  • Current asthma symptoms either by diary symptom code of 1 or greater or am or pm PEFR less than 80% of personal best post-bronchodilator value by diary, on 8 or more days during the prn screening period
  • Methacholine sensitivity: estimated PC20 FEV1 less than or equal to 12.5 mg/ml
  • Consent of guardian and assent of child
  • Ability to comply with trial for 5 - 6.5 years

Exclusion criteria:

  • Presence of one or more of the following confounding or complicating problems:
  • Any other active pulmonary disease
  • Any chronic condition presumed to interfere with the successful completion of the project or confound its interpretation
  • Pulmonary function testing findings suggesting a ventilatory defect other than asthma, or evidence of existing irreversible lung damage
  • Severe chronic sinusitis or nasal polyposis
  • Introduction of or a change in allergen immunotherapy within the past month
  • Use of more than 4 sprays of nasal steroids daily (only beclomethasone allowed)
  • Pregnancy
  • Current use of metoclopramide, ranitidine, or cimetidine
  • Treatment for gastroesophageal reflux
  • Participation in another drug study
  • Evidence of severe asthma as indicated by one or more of the following:
  • Two or more hospitalizations for asthma in the past year
  • Six or more steroid bursts in the past year
  • Demonstrated need for continuous use of glucocorticoids, either oral or inhaled
  • When off inhaled O2-agonist for more than 4 hrs and theophylline for more than 24 hrs, FEV1 less than 65% predicted
  • Intubation for asthma at any time in the past
  • Need for 9 or more puffs/day of albuterol for each of 3 consecutive days (excluding preventive use prior to exercise), or nocturnal asthma awakenings more than 1.5 times per week on average, or average diary card symptom code greater than 2, or requirement for other medications to control asthma, during prn screening period
  • Inability to perform 3 acceptable FVC maneuvers of which at least 2 reproducible FEV1s are within 10% of the largest FEV1
  • Inability to complete the methacholine challenge or methacholine PC20 FEV1 greater than 12.5 mg/ml
  • Evidence that patient or family may be unreliable or non-compliant or may move from the metropolitan area before trial completion
  Contacts and Locations
Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT00000575


Sponsors and Collaborators
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
CAMP Steering Committee
Investigators
Principal Investigator: N. F. Adkinson, MD Johns Hopkins University
Principal Investigator: Anne Fuhlbrigge, MD, MS Brigham and Women's Hospital
Principal Investigator: H. W. Kelly, PharmD University of New Mexico
Principal Investigator: Padmaja Subbarao, MD, MSc The Hospital for Sick Children
Principal Investigator: Paul Williams, MD Asthma, Inc.
Principal Investigator: Robert Strunk, MD Washington University School of Medicine
Principal Investigator: Stanley Szefler, MD National Jewish Health
Principal Investigator: James Tonascia, PhD Johns Hopkins University
Principal Investigator: Robert Zeiger, MD, PhD University of California, San Diego
  More Information

Publications:
Design and implementation of a patient education center for the Childhood Asthma Management Program. Childhood Asthma Management Program Research Group. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 1998 Dec;81(6):571-81.
Recruitment of participants in the childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP). I. Description of methods: Childhood Asthma Management Program Research Group. J Asthma. 1999 May;36(3):217-37.
The Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP): design, rationale, and methods. Childhood Asthma Management Program Research Group. Control Clin Trials. 1999 Feb;20(1):91-120.
Zeiger RS, Dawson C, Weiss S. Relationships between duration of asthma and asthma severity among children in the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP). J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1999 Mar;103(3 Pt 1):376-87.
Nelson HS, Szefler SJ, Jacobs J, Huss K, Shapiro G, Sternberg AL. The relationships among environmental allergen sensitization, allergen exposure, pulmonary function, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness in the Childhood Asthma Management Program. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1999 Oct;104(4 Pt 1):775-85.
Bender BG, Annett RD, Iklé D, DuHamel TR, Rand C, Strunk RC. Relationship between disease and psychological adaptation in children in the Childhood Asthma Management Program and their families. CAMP Research Group. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2000 Jul;154(7):706-13.
Larsen GL. Focusing on childhood asthma: the childhood asthma management program (CAMP). J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1999 Mar;103(3 Pt 1):371-3.
Weiss ST, Van Natta ML, Zeiger RS. Relationship between increased airway responsiveness and asthma severity in the childhood asthma management program. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000 Jul;162(1):50-6.
Annett RD, Aylward EH, Lapidus J, Bender BG, DuHamel T. Neurocognitive functioning in children with mild and moderate asthma in the childhood asthma management program. The Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) Research Group. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2000 Apr;105(4):717-24.
Childhood Asthma Management Program Research Group, Szefler S, Weiss S, Tonascia J, Adkinson NF, Bender B, Cherniack R, Donithan M, Kelly HW, Reisman J, Shapiro GG, Sternberg AL, Strunk R, Taggart V, Van Natta M, Wise R, Wu M, Zeiger R. Long-term effects of budesonide or nedocromil in children with asthma. N Engl J Med. 2000 Oct 12;343(15):1054-63.
Huss K, Adkinson NF Jr, Eggleston PA, Dawson C, Van Natta ML, Hamilton RG. House dust mite and cockroach exposure are strong risk factors for positive allergy skin test responses in the Childhood Asthma Management Program. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2001 Jan;107(1):48-54.
Yu O, Sheppard L, Lumley T, Koenig JQ, Shapiro GG. Effects of ambient air pollution on symptoms of asthma in Seattle-area children enrolled in the CAMP study. Environ Health Perspect. 2000 Dec;108(12):1209-14.
Annett RD, Bender BG, Lapidus J, Duhamel TR, Lincoln A. Predicting children's quality of life in an asthma clinical trial: what do children's reports tell us? J Pediatr. 2001 Dec;139(6):854-61.
Weiss ST, Horner A, Shapiro G, Sternberg AL; Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) Research Group. The prevalence of environmental exposure to perceived asthma triggers in children with mild-to-moderate asthma: data from the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP). J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2001 Apr;107(4):634-40.
Strunk RC, Sternberg AL, Bacharier LB, Szefler SJ. Nocturnal awakening caused by asthma in children with mild-to-moderate asthma in the childhood asthma management program. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2002 Sep;110(3):395-403.
DeMeo DL, Lange C, Silverman EK, Senter JM, Drazen JM, Barth MJ, Laird N, Weiss ST. Univariate and multivariate family-based association analysis of the IL-13 ARG130GLN polymorphism in the Childhood Asthma Management Program. Genet Epidemiol. 2002 Nov;23(4):335-48.
Strunk RC, Bender B, Young DA, Sagel S, Glynn E, Caesar M, Lawhon C. Predictors of protocol adherence in a pediatric asthma clinical trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2002 Oct;110(4):596-602.
Kelly HW, Strunk RC, Donithan M, Bloomberg GR, McWilliams BC, Szefler S; Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP). Growth and bone density in children with mild-moderate asthma: a cross-sectional study in children entering the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP). J Pediatr. 2003 Mar;142(3):286-91.
Bacharier LB, Dawson C, Bloomberg GR, Bender B, Wilson L, Strunk RC; Childhood Asthma Management Program Research Group. Hospitalization for asthma: atopic, pulmonary function, and psychological correlates among participants in the Childhood Asthma Management Program. Pediatrics. 2003 Aug;112(2):e85-92.
Tantisira KG, Litonjua AA, Weiss ST, Fuhlbrigge AL; Childhood Asthma Management Program Research Group. Association of body mass with pulmonary function in the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP). Thorax. 2003 Dec;58(12):1036-41.
Silverman EK, Kwiatkowski DJ, Sylvia JS, Lazarus R, Drazen JM, Lange C, Laird NM, Weiss ST. Family-based association analysis of beta2-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms in the childhood asthma management program. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003 Nov;112(5):870-6.
Lange C, Lyon H, DeMeo D, Raby B, Silverman EK, Weiss ST. A new powerful non-parametric two-stage approach for testing multiple phenotypes in family-based association studies. Hum Hered. 2003;56(1-3):10-7.
Slaughter JC, Lumley T, Sheppard L, Koenig JQ, Shapiro GG. Effects of ambient air pollution on symptom severity and medication use in children with asthma. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2003 Oct;91(4):346-53.
Bender BG, Ellison MC, Gleason M, Murphy JR, Sundstrom DA, Szefler SJ. Minimizing attrition in a long-term clinical trial of pediatric asthma. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2003 Aug;91(2):168-76.
Raby BA, Silverman EK, Lazarus R, Lange C, Kwiatkowski DJ, Weiss ST. Chromosome 12q harbors multiple genetic loci related to asthma and asthma-related phenotypes. Hum Mol Genet. 2003 Aug 15;12(16):1973-9.
Lake SL, Lyon H, Tantisira K, Silverman EK, Weiss ST, Laird NM, Schaid DJ. Estimation and tests of haplotype-environment interaction when linkage phase is ambiguous. Hum Hered. 2003;55(1):56-65.
Bacharier LB, Raissy HH, Wilson L, McWilliams B, Strunk RC, Kelly HW. Long-term effect of budesonide on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in children with mild to moderate asthma. Pediatrics. 2004 Jun;113(6):1693-9.
Covar RA, Spahn JD, Murphy JR, Szefler SJ; Childhood Asthma Management Program Research Group. Progression of asthma measured by lung function in the childhood asthma management program. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004 Aug 1;170(3):234-41. Epub 2004 Mar 17.
Tantisira KG, Lake S, Silverman ES, Palmer LJ, Lazarus R, Silverman EK, Liggett SB, Gelfand EW, Rosenwasser LJ, Richter B, Israel E, Wechsler M, Gabriel S, Altshuler D, Lander E, Drazen J, Weiss ST. Corticosteroid pharmacogenetics: association of sequence variants in CRHR1 with improved lung function in asthmatics treated with inhaled corticosteroids. Hum Mol Genet. 2004 Jul 1;13(13):1353-9. Epub 2004 May 5.
Lazarus R, Raby BA, Lange C, Silverman EK, Kwiatkowski DJ, Vercelli D, Klimecki WJ, Martinez FD, Weiss ST. TOLL-like receptor 10 genetic variation is associated with asthma in two independent samples. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004 Sep 15;170(6):594-600. Epub 2004 Jun 16.
Covar RA, Szefler SJ, Martin RJ, Sundstrom DA, Silkoff PE, Murphy J, Young DA, Spahn JD. Relations between exhaled nitric oxide and measures of disease activity among children with mild-to-moderate asthma. J Pediatr. 2003 May;142(5):469-75.
Covar RA, Spahn JD, Martin RJ, Silkoff PE, Sundstrom DA, Murphy J, Szefler SJ. Safety and application of induced sputum analysis in childhood asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004 Sep;114(3):575-82.
Randolph AG, Lange C, Silverman EK, Lazarus R, Silverman ES, Raby B, Brown A, Ozonoff A, Richter B, Weiss ST. The IL12B gene is associated with asthma. Am J Hum Genet. 2004 Oct;75(4):709-15. Epub 2004 Aug 20.
Randolph AG, Lange C, Silverman EK, Lazarus R, Weiss ST. Extended haplotype in the tumor necrosis factor gene cluster is associated with asthma and asthma-related phenotypes. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005 Sep 15;172(6):687-92. Epub 2005 Jun 23.
Annett RD, Stansbury K, Kelly HW, Strunk RC. Association of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function with neuropsychological performance in children with mild/moderate asthma. Child Neuropsychol. 2005 Aug;11(4):333-48.
Raby BA, Hwang ES, Van Steen K, Tantisira K, Peng S, Litonjua A, Lazarus R, Giallourakis C, Rioux JD, Sparrow D, Silverman EK, Glimcher LH, Weiss ST. T-bet polymorphisms are associated with asthma and airway hyperresponsiveness. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006 Jan 1;173(1):64-70. Epub 2005 Sep 22.
Raby BA, Van Steen K, Celedón JC, Litonjua AA, Lange C, Weiss ST; CAMP Research Group. Paternal history of asthma and airway responsiveness in children with asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005 Sep 1;172(5):552-8. Epub 2005 Jun 3.

Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
McGeachie MJ, Yates KP, Zhou X, Guo F, Sternberg AL, Van Natta ML, Wise RA, Szefler SJ, Sharma S, Kho AT, Cho MH, Croteau-Chonka DC, Castaldi PJ, Jain G, Sanyal A, Zhan Y, Lajoie BR, Dekker J, Stamatoyannopoulos J, Covar RA, Zeiger RS, Adkinson NF, Williams PV, Kelly HW, Grasemann H, Vonk JM, Koppelman GH, Postma DS, Raby BA, Houston I, Lu Q, Fuhlbrigge AL, Tantisira KG, Silverman EK, Tonascia J, Strunk RC, Weiss ST; CAMP Research Group. Genetics and Genomics of Longitudinal Lung Function Patterns in Individuals with Asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2016 Dec 15;194(12):1465-1474.
McGeachie MJ, Yates KP, Zhou X, Guo F, Sternberg AL, Van Natta ML, Wise RA, Szefler SJ, Sharma S, Kho AT, Cho MH, Croteau-Chonka DC, Castaldi PJ, Jain G, Sanyal A, Zhan Y, Lajoie BR, Dekker J, Stamatoyannopoulos J, Covar RA, Zeiger RS, Adkinson NF, Williams PV, Kelly HW, Grasemann H, Vonk JM, Koppelman GH, Postma DS, Raby BA, Houston I, Lu Q, Fuhlbrigge AL, Tantisira KG, Silverman EK, Tonascia J, Weiss ST, Strunk RC. Patterns of Growth and Decline in Lung Function in Persistent Childhood Asthma. N Engl J Med. 2016 May 12;374(19):1842-1852. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1513737.
Strunk RC, Colvin R, Bacharier LB, Fuhlbrigge A, Forno E, Arbelaez AM, Tantisira KG; Childhood Asthma Management Program Research Group. Airway Obstruction Worsens in Young Adults with Asthma Who Become Obese. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2015 Sep-Oct;3(5):765-71.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2015.05.009. Epub 2015 Jul 9.
Drye LT, Casper AS, Sternberg AL, Holbrook JT, Jenkins G, Meinert CL. The transitioning from trials to extended follow-up studies. Clin Trials. 2014 Dec;11(6):635-47. doi: 10.1177/1740774514547396. Epub 2014 Aug 12.
Kelly HW, Sternberg AL, Lescher R, Fuhlbrigge AL, Williams P, Zeiger RS, Raissy HH, Van Natta ML, Tonascia J, Strunk RC; CAMP Research Group. Effect of inhaled glucocorticoids in childhood on adult height. N Engl J Med. 2012 Sep 6;367(10):904-12. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1203229. Epub 2012 Sep 3.
Tantisira KG, Lasky-Su J, Harada M, Murphy A, Litonjua AA, Himes BE, Lange C, Lazarus R, Sylvia J, Klanderman B, Duan QL, Qiu W, Hirota T, Martinez FD, Mauger D, Sorkness C, Szefler S, Lazarus SC, Lemanske RF Jr, Peters SP, Lima JJ, Nakamura Y, Tamari M, Weiss ST. Genomewide association between GLCCI1 and response to glucocorticoid therapy in asthma. N Engl J Med. 2011 Sep 29;365(13):1173-83. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0911353. Epub 2011 Sep 26.
Hunninghake GM, Cho MH, Tesfaigzi Y, Soto-Quiros ME, Avila L, Lasky-Su J, Stidley C, Melén E, Söderhäll C, Hallberg J, Kull I, Kere J, Svartengren M, Pershagen G, Wickman M, Lange C, Demeo DL, Hersh CP, Klanderman BJ, Raby BA, Sparrow D, Shapiro SD, Silverman EK, Litonjua AA, Weiss ST, Celedón JC. MMP12, lung function, and COPD in high-risk populations. N Engl J Med. 2009 Dec 31;361(27):2599-608. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0904006. Epub 2009 Dec 16.

Responsible Party: James Tonascia, Principal Investigator, CAMP Data Coordinating Center, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00000575     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 213
5U01HL075417 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
First Submitted: October 27, 1999
First Posted: October 28, 1999
Results First Submitted: October 16, 2013
Results First Posted: April 3, 2014
Last Update Posted: April 3, 2014
Last Verified: February 2014

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Asthma
Lung Diseases
Bronchial Diseases
Respiratory Tract Diseases
Lung Diseases, Obstructive
Respiratory Hypersensitivity
Hypersensitivity, Immediate
Hypersensitivity
Immune System Diseases
Budesonide
Nedocromil
Albuterol
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Bronchodilator Agents
Autonomic Agents
Peripheral Nervous System Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Anti-Asthmatic Agents
Respiratory System Agents
Glucocorticoids
Hormones
Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists
Tocolytic Agents
Reproductive Control Agents
Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists
Adrenergic beta-Agonists
Adrenergic Agonists
Adrenergic Agents
Neurotransmitter Agents
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action


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