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Alcohol Myopia, Objectification, and Sexual Assault

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03956238
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : May 20, 2019
Last Update Posted : May 20, 2019
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
University of Nebraska Lincoln

Brief Summary:
The present project integrates previous research on factors associated with alcohol-involved sexual assault, with research on how intoxication alters attention and social perceptions in ways that increase the risk of sexual aggression and victimization. Specifically, this project examines whether alcohol intoxication on the part of a male perpetrator impairs attentional capacity and leads to a narrowing of the perceptual field causing a dehumanizing perspective of women as sexual objects for men's pleasure rather than individuals with thoughts and feelings, thereby increasing the propensity for sexual aggression. The present research also examines whether women's responses to this sexual objectification from men interfere with risk perception in sexual situations, particularly when women are drinking, increasing the likelihood of sexual victimization.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Alcoholic Intoxication Behavioral: Alcohol intoxication Behavioral: Objectification Not Applicable

Detailed Description:
These studies will provide a comprehensive test of our proposed model of alcohol-involved sexual assault that includes situation-specific mechanisms and key moderators of sexual violence. Specifically, hypotheses will be tested in the context of two carefully controlled laboratory studies. In Study 1, laboratory alcohol administration procedures will be used to manipulate intoxication (vs. placebo control) in men. Impaired attention and objectification will then be measured multi-modally including behavioral, self-report, and implicit measures. Finally, sexual aggression will be measured with a laboratory-based analogue of sexual assault. Study 2 will include women and follow the same alcohol administration procedures as Study 1. Additionally, mirroring men's objectification, objectifying gazes (vs. eye gazes) will also be manipulated. Impaired attention, self-objectification, and decreased sexual risk perceptions will then be assessed. Prior the laboratory visit, all participants will complete a battery of questionnaires to assess key moderators including a history of sexual assault perpetration and victimization, prior sexual objectification and self-objectification, as well as alcohol-related sex expectances and rape myth acceptance. The overall model will be analyzed within a conditional process model framework.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 360 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Single (Participant)
Primary Purpose: Basic Science
Official Title: Integrating Alcohol Myopia and Objectification to Understand Sexual Assault
Actual Study Start Date : April 22, 2019
Estimated Primary Completion Date : May 31, 2021
Estimated Study Completion Date : May 31, 2021

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine


Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Males and Alcohol Intoxication
Men assigned to alcohol intoxication arm (target BAC .08%)
Behavioral: Alcohol intoxication
Men and women assigned to moderate alcohol dose condition (target BAC .08%) or placebo control condition with NIAAA approved alcohol administration procedures

Placebo Comparator: Males and Placebo Control
Men assigned to placebo control arm
Behavioral: Alcohol intoxication
Men and women assigned to moderate alcohol dose condition (target BAC .08%) or placebo control condition with NIAAA approved alcohol administration procedures

Experimental: Females and Alcohol Intoxication and Objectifying Gazes
Women assigned to alcohol intoxication arm (target BAC .08%) and objectifying gazes arm
Behavioral: Alcohol intoxication
Men and women assigned to moderate alcohol dose condition (target BAC .08%) or placebo control condition with NIAAA approved alcohol administration procedures

Behavioral: Objectification
Women assigned to objectifying gazes condition or eye contact control condition

Experimental: Females and Alcohol Intoxication and Eye Gazes
Women assigned to alcohol intoxication arm (target BAC .08%) and eye gazes arm
Behavioral: Alcohol intoxication
Men and women assigned to moderate alcohol dose condition (target BAC .08%) or placebo control condition with NIAAA approved alcohol administration procedures

Behavioral: Objectification
Women assigned to objectifying gazes condition or eye contact control condition

Experimental: Females and Placebo Control and Objectifying Gazes
Women assigned to placebo control arm and objectifying gazes arm
Behavioral: Alcohol intoxication
Men and women assigned to moderate alcohol dose condition (target BAC .08%) or placebo control condition with NIAAA approved alcohol administration procedures

Behavioral: Objectification
Women assigned to objectifying gazes condition or eye contact control condition

Placebo Comparator: Females and Placebo Control and Eye Gazes
Women assigned to placebo control arm and eye gazes arm
Behavioral: Alcohol intoxication
Men and women assigned to moderate alcohol dose condition (target BAC .08%) or placebo control condition with NIAAA approved alcohol administration procedures

Behavioral: Objectification
Women assigned to objectifying gazes condition or eye contact control condition




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Laboratory analogue of sexual aggression [ Time Frame: 20 minutes post alcohol or placebo dosing ]
    After learning that a woman does not like sexual media, male participants choose to show her a sexually explicit video or control video (selection of the sexually explicit video indicates more sexual aggression)

  2. Sexual assault vignette measure of risk perception [ Time Frame: 20 minutes post alcohol or placebo dosing ]
    Female participants read 18 vignettes describing a sexual interaction between a man and a woman that gets progressively riskier for sexual assault and indicate when they would leave the interaction (scores range from 1-18 and higher scores indicate worse risk perception)


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Eye-tracking measure of sexual objectification [ Time Frame: 2 minutes post alcohol or placebo dosing ]
    Male participants wear a portable eye tracker and discuss media preferences with a female confederate while dwell time on the female confederate's face and body is monitored (longer dwell times on the woman's body and shorter dwell times on the woman's face indicate more sexual objectification)

  2. Eye-tracking measure of self-objectification [ Time Frame: 2 minutes post alcohol or placebo dosing ]
    Female participants wear a portable eye tracker and interact with a male confederate in front of a mirror while dwell time on the participant's body is monitored (longer dwell times on the participant's body indicates more self-objectification)

  3. Operation span task of working memory [ Time Frame: 25 minutes post alcohol or placebo dosing ]
    On a computer, male and female participants complete math problems while recalling letters. They receive 75 math problems and 75 letters. Scores range from 0 -75 and lower numbers of letters recalled indicate impaired attention

  4. Object brief-implicit association task [ Time Frame: 35 minutes post alcohol or placebo dosing ]
    On a computer, male participants sort stimuli words representing the categories object (e.g., tool), human (e.g., person), women (e.g., female), and men (male). Participants must respond as quickly and accurately as possible to categorize the words on a computer screen to object, human, women, and men categories via a computer key press. Responding faster to object and woman words and slower to woman and human words indicates implicit objectification of women

  5. Self-object brief-implicit association task [ Time Frame: 35 minutes post alcohol or placebo dosing ]
    On a computer, female participants sort stimuli words representing the categories object (e.g., tool), human (e.g., person), me (e.g., self), and others (them). Participants must respond as quickly and accurately as possible to categorize the words on a computer screen to object, human, me, and others categories via a computer key press. Responding faster to object and me words and slower to human and me words indicates implicit self-objectification.

  6. Self-report state mindful attention awareness scale [ Time Frame: 40 minutes post alcohol or placebo dosing ]
    Male and female participants self-report how attentive they feel on a 0 to 6 point scale (averaged lower scores indicate more mindful attention awareness)

  7. Self-report other-objectification questionnaire [ Time Frame: 45 minutes post alcohol or placebo dosing ]
    Male participants self-report how frequently they objectified the female confederate on a 1 to 6 point scale (averaged higher scores indicate more other-objectification)

  8. Self-report self-objectification questionnaire [ Time Frame: 45 minutes post alcohol or placebo dosing ]
    Female participants self-report how important appearance related attributes (e.g., sex appeal) are important to their self-concept relative to non-appearance attributes (e.g., hobbies) on a 0 to 9 point scale. Appearance attributes and non-appearance attributes are separately summed and non-appearance attribute scores are subtracted from appearance attribute scores (higher scores indicate more self-objectification)



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Ages Eligible for Study:   21 Years to 30 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Gender Based Eligibility:   Yes
Gender Eligibility Description:   Participants who self-identify as men will participate in Study 1 and participants who self-identify as women will participant in Study 2
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • 21-30 years of age
  • at least social drinkers

Exclusion Criteria:

  • current/past alcohol dependence (as assessed by a score of 8 or higher on the Alcohol Dependence Scale), alcohol-related treatment, or hospitalization due to alcohol use
  • current harmful and hazardous drinking as indicated by a score of 10 or greater on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT;)
  • any past serious head injuries (as indicated by HELPS Brain Injury Screening Tool)
  • serious psychological symptoms (defined as past psychotic, paranoid, or bipolar disorders, or current major depression)
  • abstinence from alcohol use
  • a condition or medication use in which alcohol consumption is medically contraindicated
  • any legal restriction against drinking (e.g., as condition of probation or parole)
  • presence of a positive breath alcohol concentration (BAC) upon arrival to the laboratory
  • if the participant is less than six feet tall and weighs over 250 pounds or is over six feet tall and weighs over 300 pounds
  • if a female participant is pregnant

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03956238


Contacts
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Contact: Sarah Gervais, PhD 402-472-3721 sgervais2@unl.edu
Contact: David DiLillo, PhD 402-472-3297 ddilillo2@unl.edu

Locations
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United States, Nebraska
University of Nebraska-Lincoln Recruiting
Lincoln, Nebraska, United States, 68588
Contact: Sarah Gervais, PhD         
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Nebraska Lincoln
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: Sarah Gervais, PhD University of Nebraska Lincoln
  Study Documents (Full-Text)

Documents provided by University of Nebraska Lincoln:
Informed Consent Form  [PDF] February 6, 2019
Study Protocol  [PDF] May 10, 2019
Statistical Analysis Plan  [PDF] May 10, 2019


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Responsible Party: University of Nebraska Lincoln
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03956238     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 18599
R01AA025090 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
First Posted: May 20, 2019    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: May 20, 2019
Last Verified: May 2019
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: Yes
Plan Description: De-identified individual participant data may be shared with other researchers (e.g., posted to the Open Science Framework) to aid with reproducibility and replicability of science.
Supporting Materials: Study Protocol
Statistical Analysis Plan (SAP)
Analytic Code
Time Frame: De-identified data may be made available to interested researchers when papers based on that data are published in scientific journals.
Access Criteria: Interested researchers will be required to have an Open Science Framework account.

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Keywords provided by University of Nebraska Lincoln:
Alcohol intoxication
Alcohol use
Drinking
Sexual assault
Sexual violence
Aggression
Attention
Victimization
Public health
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Alcoholic Intoxication
Alcohol-Related Disorders
Substance-Related Disorders
Chemically-Induced Disorders
Mental Disorders
Ethanol
Anti-Infective Agents, Local
Anti-Infective Agents
Central Nervous System Depressants
Physiological Effects of Drugs