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Avelumab in Combination With Hypofractionated Radiotherapy in Patients With Relapsed Refractory Multiple Myeloma

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT03910439
Recruitment Status : Terminated (Slow/Insufficient accrual.)
First Posted : April 10, 2019
Last Update Posted : January 22, 2021
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC) ( National Cancer Institute (NCI) )

Brief Summary:


Multiple myeloma is a cancer that forms from plasma cells which normally produce important immune response antibodies. It cannot be cured. Researchers hope the combination of radiation combined with the drug avelumab causes the immune system to kill myeloma cells more effectively.


To see if avelumab given with radiation treatment helps treat multiple myeloma. Also to see if giving the treatments together is safe.


People ages 18 and older with multiple myeloma that has come back after treatment and has spread to other parts of the body


Participants will be screened with:

Medical history

Physical exam

Blood, urine, and heart tests

Possible tumor biopsy

Bone marrow testing: A needle will be stuck into the participant s hipbone to take out a small amount of marrow.

PET/CT scan and MRI: Participants will lie in a machine that takes pictures of the body.

Participants will get avelumab through an IV. An IV is a small plastic tube put into an arm vein. They will get avelumab every 2 weeks for 2 doses. Then they will get radiation each day for 5 days. They will continue to get avelumab every 2 weeks as long as they do not have bad side effects and the treatment is helping their disease.

Participants will have blood and urine tests, bone marrow biopsies, scans, and X-rays repeated during the study.

Participants will have a follow-up visit 30 days after their last treatment dose. Then they will have visits every 3 6 months for up to 5 years....

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Myeloma, Multiple Myeloma-Multiple Biological: Avelumab Radiation: External beam radiotherapy Phase 2

Detailed Description:


  • Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a hematologic neoplasm of the plasma cells defined by an M- protein greater than or equal to 3.0 g/dL or bone marrow plasma cells greater than or equal to 10% and presence of end-organ disease.
  • Although significant advances in treatment have been made in the past decade, MM remains incurable with median survivals of 5-8 years.
  • While therapeutic strides have been made with approvals of immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs), proteasome inhibitors, and monoclonal antibodies, treatment of relapsed refractory MM (RRMM) remains an unmet need for patients who have exhausted available therapies.
  • Extramedullary plasmacytomas arising either from focal bone involvement or from hematogenous spread occur in 7-18% of newly diagnosed MM (NDMM) with an additional 6-20% in RRMM.
  • Immune checkpoint inhibitors are being evaluated in combination regimens and evidence exists that radiation therapy (XRT) may synergize with immune checkpoint inhibitors.


- To assess the response rate of avelumab in combination with XRT (BavXRT) in RRMM patients with plasmacytomas or lytic lesions


  • Patients must have previously treated RRMM refractory to, ineligible for, or intolerant of available therapeutic regimens known to provide clinical benefit (e.g, immunomodulatory [IMiD], proteasome inhibitor, and anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody-based treatments).
  • Presence of greater than or equal to 1 extramedullary plasmacytoma and/or lytic lesion amenable to XRT
  • Age greater than or equal to 18 years
  • Adequate organ function, and without serious comorbidity or disease (e.g., autoimmune disease), that would preclude concurrent systemic treatment or radiotherapy.


  • Treatment will consist of a 4-week lead-in with avelumab, followed by concurrent XRT 5Gy x 5 days). Monotherapy avelumab will continue indefinitely until progressive disease (PD) or unacceptable toxicity; 28-day cycles.
  • Routine safety and MM-specific clinical labs will be assessed. Additional research bloods will be collected for evaluating immune-subsets, endosomes, and peripheral blood T cell repertoire prior to and following treatment (lead-in and prior to XRT, at disease re- evalutions at at time of response [i.e., CR/PD]).
  • Bone marrow biopsies will be evaluated for PD-1/L1 expression, and B and T cell subsets using IHC. Flow cytometry will also be used to evaluate stimulatory and inhibitory immune subsets along with endosomes. Standard clinical histopathology and flow cytometry will also be evaluated.
  • Single arm, Simon minimax two-stage phase II trial design. The first stage will enroll 13 patients; if futility is not met, second stage will enroll another 14 patients to define the response rate to BavXRT in this population. Early stopping rules for safety will also be applied.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 4 participants
Allocation: N/A
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Phase II Pilot Study of Avelumab in Combination With Hypofractionated Radiotherapy in Patients With Relapsed Refractory Multiple Myeloma
Actual Study Start Date : October 17, 2019
Actual Primary Completion Date : November 4, 2020
Actual Study Completion Date : November 4, 2020

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Multiple Myeloma
Drug Information available for: Avelumab

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: 1
Avelumab 800 mg IV every two weeks in combination with radiation therapy
Biological: Avelumab
Avelumab 800 mg IV over 60 minutes (+/- 20 minutes) on days 1 and 15 of each 28-day cycle

Radiation: External beam radiotherapy
5 Gy per fraction will be delivered on 5 consecutive treatment days for a total dose 25 Gy

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Overall response rate (ORR) [ Time Frame: every 6-8 weeks ]
    The fraction of patients who experience a partial response (PR), very good partial response (VGPR), complete response (CR), or stringent complete response (sCR) per IMWG 2016 criteria.

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Complete Response (CR) rate and Minimal Residual Disease (MRD) negative CR rate [ Time Frame: every 6-8 weeks ]
    the fraction of patients who experience a CR or sCR using the study treatment

  2. Reductions in bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PD) plasmacytosis [ Time Frame: every 6-8 weeks ]
    the fraction of patients who experience an MRDnegCR using the study treatment

  3. Radiographic reduction in size, and/or FDG avidity (PET/CT) of extramedullary lesio [ Time Frame: every 6-8 weeks ]
    percent change in plasma cells in the PB and BM from baseline

  4. Radiographic reduction in size, and/or FDG avidity (PET/CT) of non-irradiated extramedullary lesions (abscopal effect) [ Time Frame: every 6-8 weeks ]
    percent reduction of size, and/or FDG avidity, radiographicaly, of extramedullary lesions compared to baseline

  5. Progression-free survival (PFS) [ Time Frame: every 6-8 weeks ]
    determined using the Kaplan- Meier method, considering those who progress or die without progression as failures, and censoring thosewho do not.

  6. Overall survival (OS) [ Time Frame: ongoing ]
    will be determined using the Kaplan-Meier method

  7. All Grade, Grade 3-4, and serious adverse events [ Time Frame: ongoing ]
    overall tolerability in terms of adverse events will be evaluated with descriptive statistics to determine the safety of receiving avelumabin the context of irradiation

  8. ORR post cycle 1 (prior to XRT) [ Time Frame: 4 weeks ]
    a milestone ORR at start of cycle 2 will be calculated as above to determine ORR of avelumab monotherapy after 1 cycle of therapy

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
  • Patients must have a documented diagnosis of multiple myeloma defined by the International Myeloma Working Group Criteria (IMWG)(3). Patients at initial diagnosis must have had a serum M-protein greater than or equal to3 g/dL and/or bone marrow plasma cells greater than or equal to10%, and at least one of the following:

    • Anemia: Hemoglobin less than or equal to10 g/dL, or
    • Renal failure: serum creatinine greater than or equal to 2.0 mg/dL, or
    • Hypercalcemia: Ca greater than or equal to10.5 mg/dL, or
    • Lytic bone lesions on X-ray, CT, or PET/CT, or
    • greater than or equal to2 focal lesions on spinal MRI, or
    • greater than or equal to60% bone marrow plasma cells, or
    • Involved/un-involved serum free light chain ratio greater than or equal to 100
  • Have at least one extramedullary plasmacytoma or lytic lesion which at the discretion of the investigators is amenable to and clinically indicated for localized radiation therapy
  • Must have Relapsed or Relapsed and Refractory Multiple Myeloma. Patients must have documented evidence of progressive disease (PD) as defined by the IMWG criteria on or after their last regimen and must have achieved a minimal response (MR) or better to at least one prior regimen. Definitions by the IMWG:

    • Relapsed and refractory: disease that is nonresponsive while on salvage therapy or progresses within 60 days of last therapy in patients who have achieved minor response (MR) or better
    • Relapsed: disease that progresses and requires the initiation of salvage therapy but does not meet criteria for either primary refractory or relapsed and refractory MM categories
  • Patients must have been previously treated for MM and be refractory to, not a candidate for (ineligible), or intolerant of available therapeutic regimens known to provide clinical benefit including immunomodulatory (IMiD), proteasome inhibitor, and anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody-based treatments.
  • Documented measurable disease within the 4 weeks prior to registration defined by any one of the following:

    • Monoclonal Bone marrow plasma cells greater than or equal to 5%
    • Serum monoclonal protein greater than or equal to 0.2 g/dl
    • Urine monoclonal protein >200 mg/24 hour
    • Serum immunoglobulin free light chain >10 mg/dL AND abnormal kappa/lambda ratio
    • A measurable lesion on PET/CT or MRI
  • Be greater than or equal to 18 years of age on day of signing informed consent

Note: The estimated 2017 US incidence of MM of patients under the age of 20 is 0.0%; therefore, children are excluded from enrollment in this study.

  • ECOG performance status less than or equal to 2
  • Adequate organ function as evidenced by the following laboratory parameters:

    • Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) greater than or equal to 1000 /mcL
    • Platelets greater than or equal to 75,000 / mcL
    • Hemoglobin greater than or equal to 8 g/dL (transfusions permitted)
    • Serum creatinine less than or equal to 1.5 X ULN (except if due to myeloma)


  • Measured CrCl or eGFR by CKD- EPI formula may be used to estimate CrCl/eGFR greater than or equal to 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2) for subject with creatinine levels > 1.5 X ULN
  • Serum total bilirubin less than or equal to 1.5 X ULN OR Direct bilirubin less than or equal to ULN for patients with total bilirubin levels > 1.5 ULN (except if due to myeloma)
  • AST (SGOT) and ALT (SGPT) less than or equal to 2.5 X ULN (except if due to myeloma)

    • The effects of avelumab on the developing human fetus are unknown, however, given the known role of PD-1/PD-L1 in maintaining the maternal/fetal tolerance, avelumab can be expected to have an adverse effect on pregnancy, including embryo-lethality. Women of child-bearing potential (WOCBP) and men must agree to use highly effective contraception (such as implants, injectables, combined oral contraceptives, IUDs, sexual abstinence or vasectomised partner) prior to study entry and for the duration of study treatment, and for at least 30 days after the last dose of avelumab. Should a woman become pregnant or suspect she is pregnant while she or her partner is participating in this study, she should inform her treating physician immediately.

NOTE: WOCBP is defined as any female who has experienced menarche and who has not undergone successful surgical sterilization or who is not postmenopausal.

  • Negative serum or urine pregnancy test at screening for WOCBP.
  • Ability of patient to understand and the willingness to sign a written informed consent document


  • Patients with clinically unstable lesions (e.g., impending cord compression) where a delay in receiving XRT would be detrimental are not eligible
  • Current or prior anti-cancer treatment prior to the first dose of avelumab as defined below:

    • Chemotherapy, targeted small molecule therapy, or other anti-cancer treatment not otherwise specified below within 2 weeks
    • Radiation therapy within 2 weeks
    • Anti-cancer monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatment within 4 weeks
    • Use of an investigational agent (e.g., biologic, drug, or other) within 4 weeks
    • Allogeneic stem cell transplant
  • No autoimmune disease, as follows:

    • Active (acute or chronic) autoimmune disease that might deteriorate when receiving an immuno-stimulatory agent. Patients with type I diabetes, vitiligo, psoriasis, or hypo- or hyperthyroid diseases not requiring immunosuppressive treatment may be eligible.
    • History of serious autoimmune-related disorders including immune colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, pneumonitis, or pulmonary fibrosis whether drug- mediated or not.
  • Current use of immunosuppressive medication, EXCEPT for the following:

    • Intranasal, inhaled, topical steroids, or local steroid injection (e.g., intra-articular injection)
    • Systemic corticosteroids at physiologic doses
    • Steroids as premedication for hypersensitivity reactions (e.g., CT scan premedication)
  • Uncontrolled intercurrent illness including, but not limited to the following that may limit interpretation of results or that could increase risk to the patient in the judgment of the investigator:

    • Patients with a positive hepatitis B core antibody [HBcAb] and negative surface antigen (HBsAg) may be included if HBV DNA is undetectable
    • Patients who are positive for HCV antibody must be negative for HCV by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to be eligible for study participation
    • Known acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Controlled and stable HIV positivity is allowed
    • Prior organ transplantation including allogenic stem-cell transplantation
    • Clinically significant cardiovascular disease: cerebral vascular accident/stroke (< 6 months prior to enrollment), myocardial infarction (< 6 months prior to enrollment), unstable angina, congestive heart failure (greater than or equal to New York Heart Association Classification Class III), or serious cardiac arrhythmia requiring medication. Mild arrhythmias, e.g. stable atrial fibrillation, may be allowed at the discretion of the investigator
    • Active infection requiring systemic therapy (minor infections may be allowed at the discretion of the investigator)
    • Known mental or physical illness that would interfere with cooperation with the requirements of the trial or confound the results or interpretation of the results of the trial and, in the opinion of the treating investigator, would make the patient inappropriate for entry into the study.
  • Persisting toxicity related to prior therapy (Grade > 1); however, alopecia, sensory neuropathy Grade less than or equal to 2, or other Grade less than or equal to 2 not constituting a safety risk based on investigator s judgment are acceptable.
  • Vaccination with live vaccines within 4 weeks of the first dose of avelumab and while on study is prohibited (inactivated vaccines may be administered).
  • Pregnant or lactating females. Because there is an unknown but potential risk for adverse events in nursing infants, on-study breastfeeding is not allowed.
  • History of allergic reactions or hypersensitivity to avelumab or any component in its formulations, including known severe hypersensitivity reactions to monoclonal antibodies (Grade greater than or equal to 3) unless felt to be in the best interests of the patient at the discretion of the investigator.
  • Known additional malignancy that is symptomatic or requires active systemic treatment (at the discretion of the PI, exceptions may be made if in the best interest of the patient).
  • Other severe acute or chronic medical conditions including immune colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, immune pneumonitis, pulmonary fibrosis or psychiatric conditions including recent (within the past year) or active suicidal ideation or behavior; or laboratory abnormalities that may increase the risk associated with study participation or study treatment administration or may interfere with the interpretation of study results and, in the judgment of the investigator, would make the patient inappropriate for entry into this study.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT03910439

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United States, Maryland
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center
Bethesda, Maryland, United States, 20892
Sponsors and Collaborators
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
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Principal Investigator: Dickran G Kazandjian, M.D. National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Additional Information:
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Responsible Party: National Cancer Institute (NCI) Identifier: NCT03910439    
Other Study ID Numbers: 190078
First Posted: April 10, 2019    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: January 22, 2021
Last Verified: January 2021

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: Yes
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Keywords provided by National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC) ( National Cancer Institute (NCI) ):
Monoclonal Antibody
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Multiple Myeloma
Neoplasms, Plasma Cell
Neoplasms by Histologic Type
Hemostatic Disorders
Vascular Diseases
Cardiovascular Diseases
Blood Protein Disorders
Hematologic Diseases
Hemorrhagic Disorders
Lymphoproliferative Disorders
Immunoproliferative Disorders
Immune System Diseases