Setmelanotide for the Treatment of Leptin Receptor (LEPR) Deficiency Obesity
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03287960|
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : September 19, 2017
Results First Posted : May 23, 2023
Last Update Posted : May 23, 2023
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|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Leptin Receptor Deficiency Obesity||Drug: Setmelanotide Drug: Placebo||Phase 3|
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Actual Enrollment :||15 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Single Group Assignment|
|Intervention Model Description:||Open-label with an 8 week Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Withdrawal Period|
|Masking:||None (Open Label)|
|Masking Description:||During the 8 week double-blind placebo-controlled withdrawal period, participants received 4 weeks of daily setmelanotide and 4 weeks of daily placebo. Participants, investigators, and sites remained blinded as to when placebo treatment was administered.|
|Official Title:||An Open Label, 1-Year Trial, Including a Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Withdrawal Period, of Setmelanotide (RM-493), a Melanocortin 4 Receptor (MC4R) Agonist, in Leptin Receptor (LEPR) Deficiency Obesity Due to Bi-Allelic Loss-of-Function LEPR Genetic Mutation|
|Actual Study Start Date :||January 30, 2018|
|Actual Primary Completion Date :||September 25, 2020|
|Actual Study Completion Date :||September 25, 2020|
Participants received titrated doses of setmelanotide once daily, by SC injection during titration period for 2 - 12 weeks. Thereafter, participants continued setmelanotide at their specific therapeutic dose for an additional 10 weeks during the open label treatment period. Participants who achieved at least a 5 kg weight loss (or at least 5% weight loss if baseline body weight was <100 kg) at the end of the open label treatment period, continued into the 8-week double-blind withdrawal period and received 4 weeks setmelanotide and 4 weeks placebo. Following the withdrawal period, participants entered open label treatment period and received setmelanotide to complete approximately 52 weeks (~1 year) of treatment at a therapeutic dose.
Once daily subcutaneous injection
Other Name: RM-493
Once daily subcutaneous injection
- Percentage of Participants Who Reached ≥10% Weight Loss Threshold After 1 Year (Pivotal Cohort) [ Time Frame: Week 52 ]The percentage of participants who met the ≥10% weight loss threshold (responders) after approximately Week 52 (~1 year) of treatment were analyzed.
- Percentage of Participants Who Reached ≥10% Weight Loss Threshold After 1 Year (Pivotal + Supplemental Cohort) [ Time Frame: Week 52 ]The percentage of participants who met the ≥10% weight loss threshold (responders) after approximately Week 52 (~1 year) of treatment were analyzed.
- Mean Percent Change From Baseline in Body Weight [ Time Frame: Baseline and Week 52 ]The mean percent change from baseline in body weight at 52 weeks was analyzed.
- Mean Percent Change From Baseline in Hunger Score ('Most Hunger') [ Time Frame: Baseline and Week 52 ]The mean percent change in hunger scores for participants ≥12 years of age with leptin receptor (LEPR) deficiency obesity in treatment with setmelanotide was evaluated. Hunger score ranged from 0 - 10 on a Likert-type scale; 0 = not hungry at all and 10 = hungriest possible. On the Daily Hunger Questionnaire, each of the 3 items (average hunger, most/worst hunger, and morning hunger) was scored separately and averaged on a weekly basis.
- Percentage of Participants Achieving at Least 25% Improvement in Daily Hunger From Baseline [ Time Frame: Baseline and Week 52 ]The percentage of participants (≥12 years of age) achieving a ≥25% improvement from baseline in hunger score at Week 52 (i.e., after treatment with setmelanotide for 52 weeks at the therapeutic dose) was assessed. Hunger ranged from 0 - 10 on a Likert-type scale; 0 = not hungry at all and 10 = hungriest possible. On the Daily Hunger Questionnaire, each of the 3 items (average hunger, most/worst hunger, and morning hunger) was scored separately and averaged on a weekly basis.
- Absolute Change From Baseline in Waist Circumference [ Time Frame: Baseline and Week 52 ]Waist circumference (cm) was measured according to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) criteria. Waist circumference was measured when participants were fasting at approximately the same time at each visit. The absolute change from baseline in waist circumference was assessed.
- Absolute Change in Body Weight (Reversal of Weight Loss) During Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Withdrawal Period [ Time Frame: Baseline and Week 8 of withdrawal period ]A comparison of weight change was evaluated during the 8 week placebo-controlled withdrawal period for each participant, during which each participant received 4 weeks of placebo and 4 weeks active therapy in a blinded fashion.
- Absolute Daily Hunger Reduction Score During the Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Withdrawal Period [ Time Frame: Week 8 of withdrawal period ]The absolute score in daily hunger reduction during the double-blind placebo-controlled withdrawal period (≥12 Years of Age) was assessed. Hunger ranged from 0 - 10 on a Likert-type scale; 0 = not hungry at all and 10 = hungriest possible. On the Daily Hunger Questionnaire, each of the 3 items (average hunger, most/worst hunger, and morning hunger) was scored separately and averaged on a weekly basis. The weekly average hunger score of the daily worst (most) hunger score in 24 hours is the hunger score used to assess this study endpoint. Lower scores represent lower hunger, higher scores represent greater hunger.
- Mean Percent Change From Baseline in Body Mass Index [ Time Frame: Baseline and Week 52 ]The mean percent change from baseline in body mass index (BMI) was assessed.
- Change From Baseline in Glucose Parameters [ Time Frame: Baseline and Week 52 ]Glucose parameters included glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Data is planned to be reported only for change from baseline in glucose levels.
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|Ages Eligible for Study:||6 Years and older (Child, Adult, Older Adult)|
|Sexes Eligible for Study:||All|
|Accepts Healthy Volunteers:||No|
- Bi-allelic, homozygous or compound heterozygous (a different gene mutation on each allele) genetic status for the LEPR gene, with the loss-of-function (LOF) variant for each allele conferring a severe obesity phenotype.
- Age 6 years and above. 6+: Germany, Netherlands, UK. 12+: France
- If adult age ≥18 years, obesity with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kilograms per meters squared (kg/m^2); if child or adolescent (< 18 years of age), obesity with weight > 97th percentile for age on growth chart assessment.
- Study participant and/or parent or guardian is able to communicate well with the investigator, to understand and comply with the requirements of the study, and is able to understand and sign the written informed consent/assent, after being informed about the study.
- Female participants of child-bearing potential must agree to use contraception as outlined in the protocol. Female participants of non-childbearing potential, defined as surgically sterile (status post hysterectomy, bilateral oophorectomy, or bilateral tubal ligation) post-menopausal for at least 12 months (and confirmed with a screening FSH level in the post-menopausal lab range), or failure to have progressed to Tanner Stage V and/or failure to have achieved menarche, do not require contraception during the study.
- Male participants with female partners of childbearing potential must agree to a double barrier method if they become sexually active during the study. Male participants must not donate sperm during and for 90 days following their participation in the study.
- Recent intensive (within 2 months) diet and/or exercise regimen with or without the use of weight loss agents including herbal medications, that has resulted in weight loss or weight stabilization.
- Prior gastric bypass surgery resulting in >10% weight loss durably maintained from the baseline pre-operative weight with no evidence of weight regain.
- Diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, personality disorder or other Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) disorders that the investigator believes will interfere significantly with study compliance.
- A Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) score of ≥ 15.
- Any suicidal ideation of type 4 or 5 on the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS). Any lifetime history of a suicide attempt, or any suicidal behavior in the last month.
- Current, severe stable restrictive or obstructive lung disease arising because of extreme obesity, evidence of significant heart failure (New York Heart Association [NYHA] Class 3 or greater), or oncologic disease, if these were severe enough to interfere with the study and/or would confound the results.
- History of significant liver disease or liver injury, or current liver assessment for a cause of abnormal liver tests [as indicated by abnormal liver function tests, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase, or serum bilirubin (> 2.0 x upper limit of normal (ULN) for any of these tests)] for an etiology other than non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).
- History or presence of impaired renal function as indicated by clinically significant abnormal creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), or urinary constituents (e.g., albuminuria) or moderate to severe renal dysfunction as defined by the Cockcroft Gault equation < 30 milliliter/minute (mL/min).
- History or close family history (parents or siblings) of skin cancer or melanoma, or participant history of ocular-cutaneous albinism.
- Significant dermatologic findings relating to melanoma or pre-melanoma skin lesions, determined as part of a screening comprehensive skin evaluation performed by a qualified dermatologist.
- Volunteer is, in the opinion of the study investigator, not suitable to participate in the study.
- Participation in any clinical study with an investigational drug/device within 3 months prior to the first day of dosing.
- Significant hypersensitivity to study drug.
- Inability to comply with every day (QD) injection regimen.
- Participants who have been placed in an institution through an official or court order, as well as those who are dependent on the sponsor, Investigator or study site.
To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03287960
|Markham Stouffville Hospital|
|Markham, Ontario, Canada, L3P 7P3|
|Institute of Cardiometabolism and Nutrition / Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital|
|Paris, France, 75013|
|University of Ulm|
|Erasmus Medical Center|
|Hôpital Félix GUYON|
|Saint Denis, Réunion, 97405|
|University of Cambridge Metabolic Research Laboratories|
|Cambridge, United Kingdom, CB2 0QQ|
|Study Chair:||David Meeker, MD||Rhythm Pharmaceuticals, Inc.|
Documents provided by Rhythm Pharmaceuticals, Inc.:
|Responsible Party:||Rhythm Pharmaceuticals, Inc.|
|Other Study ID Numbers:||
2017-002005-36 ( EudraCT Number )
|First Posted:||September 19, 2017 Key Record Dates|
|Results First Posted:||May 23, 2023|
|Last Update Posted:||May 23, 2023|
|Last Verified:||May 2023|
|Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:|
|Plan to Share IPD:||No|
|Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product:||Yes|
|Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product:||No|
LEPR deficiency obesity
Melanocortin 4 receptor