PrEP Implementation for Mothers in Antenatal Care (PrIMA)
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03070600|
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : March 3, 2017
Results First Posted : May 10, 2022
Last Update Posted : July 12, 2022
|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|HIV Infections Pregnancy Related||Other: Universal PrEP Counseling Other: Targeted PrEP Counseling||Phase 4|
Women living in regions with high HIV prevalence are at high risk of HIV acquisition in pregnancy and postpartum because they infrequently use condoms, do not know their partner's HIV status, and have biologic changes or changes in their partner's sexual partnerships that increase susceptibility. Oral pre-exposure antiretroviral prophylaxis (PrEP) may be an attractive strategy for HIV prevention in pregnancy/postpartum; however, it is important to ensure PrEP reaches women who are at risk for acquiring HIV during pregnancy while avoiding unnecessary PrEP use during pregnancy. Clinicians and women are using PrEP in pregnancy; in qualitative studies, women, health workers and policy-makers support use of PrEP in pregnancy but advocate for models of PrEP delivery that ensure women at risk receive PrEP while minimizing unnecessary PrEP use in women not at risk. Targeting PrEP to women at greatest risk of HIV may maximize benefits, minimize potential risks, and optimize cost-effectiveness. This cluster-randomized clinical trial (RCT) in 20 Maternal Child Health (MCH) clinics in western Kenya (10 clinics per arm, up to 250 women per clinic, up to 5000 women overall), will compare 2 models of PrEP delivery in pregnancy. Clinics will offer universal availability of PrEP (and women self-select whether to use) or targeted offer of PrEP (i.e., offer to women identified as high risk through a standardized risk assessment and partner self-testing, and then women identified as high-risk select whether to use). Leveraging the pre-existing MCH clinic visit schedule will enable programmatically relevant assessment of PrEP uptake, use, and HIV incidence. The outcome of the study will be a model of PrEP delivery in pregnancy that optimizes effectiveness, safety, and cost-effectiveness. Our team has expertise in maternal-child HIV (John-Stewart, Kinuthia), PrEP clinical trials and implementation science (Baeten, Richardson), partner self-testing (Thirumurthy), economics and qualitative research (Barnabas, O'Malley).
AIM 1a. In a cluster-RCT, compare universal PrEP (offer to all; women self-select PrEP) to targeted PrEP (limit the offer to women identified as high risk through a standardized risk assessment and partner self-testing) for outcomes reflecting the balance of PrEP effectiveness and avoiding unnecessary PrEP exposure to women at low or no risk of HIV: HIV incidence at 9 months postpartum among all women (including those who did and did not receive PrEP) and proportion of women exposed to PrEP.
AIM 1b. To compare trial arms for proportion of women 'appropriately' on PrEP (risk factors), PrEP adherence (drug levels) and duration, partners with known HIV status, partners on ART; infant outcomes (growth, birth outcomes, HIV status).
AIM 2. To estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness of targeted PrEP compared to universal PrEP for women during pregnancy and postpartum, per HIV infection and disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted.
AIM 3. To qualitatively assess barriers and facilitators to uptake, adherence, acceptability, and feasibility in universal and targeted PrEP models at the organizational, provider, and individual woman level.
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Actual Enrollment :||4447 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Parallel Assignment|
|Intervention Model Description:||We will select 20 clinics from Western Kenya. Ten clinics will be randomized to universal PrEP and ten to targeted PrEP (Table 2). To ensure balance between study arms in terms of key site characteristics, sites will be categorized on HIV prevalence and ANC volume, and restricted randomization will be used for site (cluster) allocation to intervention and control arms (68).|
|Masking:||None (Open Label)|
|Official Title:||Delivering PrEP in Pregnancy|
|Actual Study Start Date :||January 15, 2018|
|Actual Primary Completion Date :||January 15, 2021|
|Actual Study Completion Date :||January 15, 2021|
Active Comparator: Universal PrEP Counselling
All enrolled women receiving antenatal care at facilities assigned to Universal PrEP arm will receive standardized HIV risk counseling and then self-select whether they want to use PrEP.
Other: Universal PrEP Counseling
Counseling at universal sites, will use a standardized counseling script to state that PrEP is available for women at risk for HIV, explain that HIV prevalence in the region is high, and will note that women with HIV positive partners or who don't know their partner's status may be at risk. Counseling will specify that women may have their own reasons to feel at risk or to want PrEP. Following standardized counseling, women will select PrEP at the same visit or will be allowed to deliberate on the decision and come back at the next visit with a decision. Women will be informed that it is advisable to use PrEP if they know their partner is HIV positive or if they do not know their partner's status and will be encouraged to bring untested partners to clinic if status is unknown.
Experimental: Targeted PrEP Clinics
All enrolled women receiving antenatal care at facilities assigned to the Targeted PrEP arm will be assessed for HIV-risk prior to receiving targeted PrEP counseling.
Other: Targeted PrEP Counseling
Following enrollment, the targeted PrEP clinics will provide two inter-related innovations over two ANC visits. In the targeted PrEP clinics, any of the following three criteria can trigger enhanced PrEP counseling. A participant that meets any one of these criteria will receive PrEP counseling during the study visit where the criteria is met:
- Maternal HIV Incidence [ Time Frame: 6 weeks, 6 months, 9 months postpartum ]Maternal HIV Incidence
- Appropriate PrEP Decision [ Time Frame: Enrollment to 9 months postpartum, the median gestational age at enrollment was 24 weeks (IQR: 20, 30). ]Scored 1 for high risk women using PrEP and low risk women not using PrEP; 0 for high risk women NOT on PrEP and low risk women using PrEP
- PrEP Adherence [ Time Frame: Enrollment to 9 months postpartum ]Sequential dried blood spots, PrEP adherence by DBS dichotomous by pregnancy or postpartum thresholds equivalent to ~7 doses per week (≥650 fmol/punch during pregnancy or ≥950 fmol/punch postpartum) based on the thresholds established by the 2009 IMPAACT directly observed PrEP PK study.
- PrEP Duration [ Time Frame: Enrollment to 9 months postpartum, the median gestational age at enrollment was 24 weeks (IQR: 20, 30). ]Number of months on PrEP
- Partner With Known HIV Status [ Time Frame: At 9 months postpartum ]Participants report of partner's HIV status
- Infant Birthweight [ Time Frame: time of delivery ]Infant Birthweight
- Infant Growth [ Time Frame: 9 months of age ]Infant height, weight, and age (Weight-for-Age [WAZ], Height-for-Age [HAZ], Weight-for-Height [WHZ] Z-scores). A Z-score of 0 represents the population mean. Indicators of infant malnutrition are defined as Underweight- WAZ Z-score<-2; Stunting-HAZ Z-Score <-2; Wasting- WHZ Z-Score <-2.
- PrEP Use [ Time Frame: Enrollment to 9 months postpartum, the median gestational age at enrollment was 24 weeks (IQR: 20, 30). ]PrEP Utilization by participants
- PrEP Acceptance [ Time Frame: Enrollment to 9 months postpartum, the median gestational age at enrollment was 24 weeks (IQR: 20, 30). ]PrEP accepted by participants
- Preterm Birth [ Time Frame: At birth ]Birth <37 weeks gestation
- PrEP Adherence by Self-report [ Time Frame: Enrollment to 9 months postpartum, the median gestational age at enrollment was 24 weeks (IQR: 20, 30). ]Any missed doses in the last month reported by participants
- Partner on ART if HIV Positive [ Time Frame: Enrollment to 9 months postpartum, the median gestational age at enrollment was 24 weeks (IQR: 20, 30). ]Participant report of partner ART use if partner is HIV positive
To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03070600
|Principal Investigator:||Grace John-Stewart, MD, PhD||University of Washington|
|Principal Investigator:||Jared Baeten, MD, PhD||University of Washington|
|Study Director:||John Kinuthia, MBChB, MMed||Kenyatta National Hospital|