The Use of Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase (GAD) and Gamma-Amino Butyric Acid (GABA) in the Treatment of Type I Diabetes (GABA)
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02002130|
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : December 5, 2013
Last Update Posted : May 6, 2022
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|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Type I Diabetes||Drug: Placebo GABA and Placebo GAD-alum Drug: GABA and Placebo GAD-alum Drug: Active Oral GABA and Active GAD-alum injection||Phase 1|
The primary defect in autoimmune Type I Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) involves the infiltration of the pancreatic islet cells by T-lymphocytes, macrophages, and other immune cells, and consequent loss of beta cells. At the onset of T1DM more than 70% of the beta cells are destroyed, whereas the residual beta cells most likely represent the only reservoir for the potential regeneration of the islet beta cell mass. A series of immunological abnormalities have been reported in those with T1DM including, but not limited to, the production of autoantibodies (i.e., glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD-65), tyrosine phosphatase-related islet antigen 2 (IA2), Zinc Transporter 8 (ZnT8A), or insulin (IAA) as well as alterations in the capacity of regulatory T cells (Treg) to suppress the action of effector T cells (Teff); the latter population thought as playing a key role in the immune destructive process. Therefore, a vast majority of studies attempting to prevent or reverse the disease have focused on immune suppression. While some of these studies have shown limited promise, many has side effects which were significant enough that one must question the value of short term benefits associated with utilizing these drugs.
GABA is a naturally occurring substance in physiology and has the potential to locally reduce inflammation and protect pancreatic beta cells from auto-immune destruction. GABA, synthesized from glutamate by GAD, is a well known neurotransmitter in the CNS and acts mainly through the GABAA receptor (GABAAR). GABA is locally produced by the pancreatic beta cells. GABAARs are also expressed in various immune cells, including T-cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and are known to exert immune-inhibitory effects. BABA appears to play multiple roles in the pancreas. GABA promotes beta-cell growth and survival, and GABA can also act on the GABA(A) receptors in the pancreatic alpha cells, in so doing suppressing glucagon secretion, and GABA suppresses inflammation and increases regulatory T-cell numbers. Based on the aforementioned information, we envisage that administering GABA to those with new onset T1DM may preserve or increase residual insulin production, suppress glucagon release, and decrease inflammation surrounding the pancreas. With this, GABA may prolong the beta-cell life after diagnosis. Combining with GAD-alum injections, which aim to halt the autoimmune attack by inducing tolerance thereby saving residual insulin production, may improve glycemic control even more and significantly decrease the risk of hypoglycemia and long-term complications in the future.
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Actual Enrollment :||101 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Parallel Assignment|
|Masking:||Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)|
|Official Title:||The Use of Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase (GAD)and Gamma-Amino Butyric Acid(GABA)in the Treatment of Type I Diabetes.|
|Actual Study Start Date :||January 2015|
|Actual Primary Completion Date :||October 15, 2021|
|Actual Study Completion Date :||April 15, 2022|
Placebo Comparator: Placebo GABA and Placebo GAD-alum
Placebo formulation, Maltodextrin, for Gamma-Amino Butyric Acid (GABA) capsule-identical in appearance and taste, but no active medication will be taken with meals.Number of pills based on body surface area.
Placebo GAD-alum(Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase in alum) injection- identical in appearance but no active medication will be received at baseline and 1 month.
Drug: Placebo GABA and Placebo GAD-alum
Maltodextrin as a placebo formulation for GABA Placebo GAD-alum injection
Other Name: Placebo for Gamma-Amino Butyric Acid
Active Comparator: GABA and placebo GAD-alum
Patients will receive the Active GABA (Gamma-Amino Butyric Acid) capsules. Each capsule 250mg. Dosage will be calculated according to body surface area of the child and divided between 2 meals/day. Larger dose taken with larger meal.
Patients will receive the GAD-alum( Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase in alum) placebo at baseline and 1 month.
Drug: GABA and Placebo GAD-alum
Oral Active GABA with Placebo GAD-alum
Active Comparator: Active Oral GABA and Active GAD-alum Injection
Patients will receive Oral GABA(Gamma-Amino Butyric Acid) 250mg capsules. Dosage (# of capsules) based on body surface area and divided between 2 meals/day.
Patients will receive a primary (at baseline)injection of recombinant human GAD(Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase) in a standard vaccine formulation with alum, and a booster injection of the same at 1 month after baseline.
Drug: Active Oral GABA and Active GAD-alum injection
Active Oral GABA and Active GAD-alum injection
- Compare the effect of oral GABA or oral GABA/GAD combination administration on pancreatic beta cell function by quantitative C-peptide secretion [ Time Frame: 12 months after baseline ]This will be assessed by meal stimulated c-peptide secretion in treatment cohorts compared to age matched placebo controls before and after 1 year of treatment.
- Compare the effect of oral GABA or GABA/GAD administration on fasting and meal stimulated glucagon and pro-insulin levels. [ Time Frame: 12 months after baseline ]This will be assessed by meal stimulated glucagon and pro-insulin secretion in treatment cohorts compared with age matched placebo controls before and after 1 year of treatment.
- Compare the effect of oral GABA or GABA/GAD administration on total daily insulin usage by participants and corrected Hemoglobin A1C. [ Time Frame: 12 months after baseline ]This will be assessed by measuring insulin usage and corrected Hemoglobin A1C linearly for each participant, in addition to comparison with age matched controls
- Compare the effect of oral GABA or oral GABA/GAD administration on indices of immune system function. [ Time Frame: 12 months after baseline ]This will be assessed by measuring immunologic markers of inflammation linearly over the 12 month treatment course for each patient and comparing to age matched placebo controls.
- Compare the effect of oral GABA or oral GABA/GAD administration on diabetes related autoantibodies [ Time Frame: 12 months after baseline ]This will be assessed by measuring GAD65, ICA512, and Zinc Transporter 8 antibodies throughout the treatment period.
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|Ages Eligible for Study:||4 Years to 18 Years (Child, Adult)|
|Sexes Eligible for Study:||All|
|Accepts Healthy Volunteers:||No|
- Patients must be positive for GAD-65 antibody.
- They must meet ADA criteria for diabetes: classic symptoms, plus blood sugar > 200mg/dL or fasting blood sugar > 126 mg/dL.
- Must be enrolled with 5 weeks of diagnosis
- Females who are post-menarchal must use 2 forms of contraception if not abstinent. The types of contraception deemed acceptable would be oral contraceptives, intrauterine devices, and barrier methods.
- Signed informed consent form.
- Chronic systemic steroid use, including inhaled compounds, or any medication which can alter glucose metabolism
- Obesity, defined as BMI > 95% or BMI > 27 in adolescents with acanthosis score between 1-1.5.
- Pregnant and/or breast feeding
- History of seizure disorder
- Patients on medications that may disturb GABA action, such as Baclofen, Valium, Acamprosate, Neurontin, or Lyrica
- history of any alcoholism or substance abuse.
- Chronic Disease (such as liver, cancer, cystic fibrosis, or renal failure)
- Chromosome abnormality (such as Trisomy 21, Turner Syndrome, etc.)
To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02002130
|United States, Alabama|
|Children's of Alabama|
|Birmingham, Alabama, United States, 35233|
|Principal Investigator:||Kenneth McCormick, MD||University of Alabama at Birmingham|
|Principal Investigator:||Gail Mick, MD||University of Alabama at Birmingham|
Documents provided by Kenneth McCormick, University of Alabama at Birmingham:
Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
|Responsible Party:||Kenneth McCormick, MD, University of Alabama at Birmingham|
|Other Study ID Numbers:||
|First Posted:||December 5, 2013 Key Record Dates|
|Last Update Posted:||May 6, 2022|
|Last Verified:||May 2022|
|Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product:||Yes|
|Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product:||No|
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1
Glucose Metabolism Disorders
Endocrine System Diseases
Immune System Diseases
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action