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Clomiphene Citrate for the Treatment of Low Testosterone Associated With Chronic Opioid Pain Medication Administration

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT01880086
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : June 18, 2013
Results First Posted : June 5, 2017
Last Update Posted : July 17, 2018
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Weill Medical College of Cornell University

Brief Summary:

The purpose of this randomized controlled clinical trial is to evaluate the effects of clomiphene citrate compared to placebo (substance without active medication) in men who are taking pain medication (opioids) for chronic pain conditions and who have low blood testosterone levels.

The condition of men having low testosterone with long-term pain medication (opioid) usage is called opioid-induced androgen deficiency (OPIAD). Low testosterone can be caused by pain medication effects on part of the brain (hypothalamic-pituitary axis) which ultimately result in decreased testosterone production by the testes. Typical symptoms of low testosterone (hypogonadism) may include decreased muscle mass, increased fat, osteoporosis, anemia, erectile dysfunction, delayed ejaculation. In addition, men with low testosterone may experience decreased attention, and decreased libido, fatigue, and depressed mood. Few studies have looked at hormonal changes caused by long-term opioid usage in men.

Clomiphene citrate, a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) oral medication which inhibits estrogen effects (feedback) on the brain, has been identified by prior studies to raise testosterone in men with low testosterone (due to reasons other than chronic pain medication). Clomiphene citrate is also known to lead to increased sperm production in men with low testosterone unlike testosterone topical or injection medications. Although clomiphene citrate has been studied in hypogonadal men with beneficial outcomes and minimal side effects, no group has previously studied clomiphene citrate as treatment in patients with OPIAD.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Hypogonadism Opioid-Related Disorders Male Infertility Drug: Clomiphene citrate Drug: Placebo Phase 2

Detailed Description:
Chronic nonmalignant pain is a widespread issue affecting 15-30% of the population. Many patients with chronic pain are responsive to first-line combination of physical modalities and non-opioid analgesics. Up to 20% of these patients, however, require opioid therapy for adequate pain relief. The use of long-acting opioids, including morphine sulfate, oxycodone, fentanyl, and methadone, although effective for pain control, carries risks of addiction, tolerance, and systemic side effects including nausea, itching, constipation, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with consequent testosterone depletion (in up to 86% of patients taking chronic pain medication) leading to the multiple adverse effects. Opioid-induced androgen deficiency (OPIAD), occurs with high frequency and persistence, and commonly remains undiagnosed in the pain clinic. Low testosterone may be treated using exogenous testosterone (topical or gel) or other medications such as selective estrogen receptor modulators (i.e. clomiphene citrate). While both medication types increase serum testosterone levels, clomiphene citrate is known to benefit sperm parameters in hypogonadal men while exogenous testosterone is known to inhibit sperm production. Few studies have examined the hormonal changes caused by long-term opioid usage in men, and no studies have formally studied clomiphene citrate for this patient population.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 13 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Clomiphene Citrate for the Treatment of Opioid-Induced Androgen Deficiency: Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial
Study Start Date : August 2013
Actual Primary Completion Date : March 2016
Actual Study Completion Date : November 2017

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Clomiphene citrate
The initial dose of clomiphene citrate will be 25 mg (po, pill by mouth) every other day. This will be started at visit 2, week 0 of the study following diagnosis of low baseline testosterone (serum total testosterone <350 ng/dl in men <55 years, <300 ng/dl in men 55-65 years). Clomiphene citrate dose will be titrated up to a maximum of 50 mg daily according to serum total testosterone levels measured at follow-up visits during the 3 month duration of the study.
Drug: Clomiphene citrate
Other Names:
  • Clomid
  • Milophene
  • Serophene

Placebo Comparator: Placebo
Placebo pill will be administered (po, pill by mouth) every other day starting at week 0 of the study in men diagnosed with low testosterone. Treatment will be delayed in these men until the 3 month completion of the study, at which time this group may also receive testosterone replacement therapy.
Drug: Placebo
Placebo pill that will have appearance identical to the treatment pill but will not contain active medication.
Other Name: Sugar pill

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Serum Total Testosterone (Change From Baseline) [ Time Frame: 3 months post initial visit ]
    Morning venipuncture of serum total testosterone.

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Other Hormonal Profile (Change From Baseline) [ Time Frame: 3 months post initial visit ]
    Luteinizing hormone (LH)

  2. Androgen Deficiency in the Aging Male (ADAM) Questionnaire [ Time Frame: 3 months post initial visit ]
    Overall, study subjects will be assessed for possible change in hypogonadal, sexual function, and pain symptoms. Minimum score is 0 and maximum score is 10. 0 is most symptomatic, and 10 is least symptomatic.

  3. Hematocrit (%) [ Time Frame: 3 months post initial visit ]
    Measure hematocrit from baseline.

  4. Estradiol [ Time Frame: 3 months post initial visit ]
  5. Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) Questionnaire [ Time Frame: 3 months post initial visit ]
    Overall, study subjects will be assessed for possible change in hypogonadal, sexual function, and pain symptoms. Minimum score is 1, maximum score is 25. The minimum value is most symptomatic and maximum value is least symptomatic.

  6. Men's Sexual Health Questionnaire (MSHQ) Questionnaire [ Time Frame: 3 months post initial visit ]
    Overall, study subjects will be assessed for possible change in hypogonadal, sexual function, and pain symptoms. Minimum score is 1, maximum score is 20. Minimum score is considered most symptomatic, maximum score is considered least symptomatic.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 65 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Male
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Male
  • 18 years to 65 years
  • Low testosterone as defined by criteria (serum total testosterone <350 ng/dl in men <55 years, <300 ng/dl in men 55-65 years)
  • EITHER taking opioid pain medication (see A below) OR planning to start new pain medication regimen (see B below)
  • A) EITHER continuous opioid treatment for chronic nonmalignant pain for >=6 months receiving one of several specified opioid regimens for the past 1 month (including >=20 mg/day of oral methadone, >=30 mg/day of oral sustained release oxycodone, >=30 mg/day of oral morphine sulfate, >=6 mg/day of oral dilaudid or >= 8 mg/day of dilaudid ER, or >=25 mcg/hr of transdermal fentanyl or buprenorphine, or intrathecal morphine pump)
  • B) OR the pain management physician is planning to start pain medication (opioid or non-opioid pain therapy) but you have not received it yet. If this is the case, your testosterone will be checked before starting and during 1 month of pain therapy to determine if you have low testosterone to qualify to begin medication (clomiphene or placebo) treatment in this study.
  • BMI (20-35 kg/m2)
  • Presence of clear secondary hypogonadism with hypogonadal symptoms and low total testosterone level (confirmed with morning testosterone level <= 350 ng/dL for men age >= 55 and <= 300ng/dl for men age 55-65) or total testosterone <=200 ng/dl (regardless of symptoms). Additionally luteinizing hormone (LH) should be <15 mIU (milli-International unit )/mL (at baseline only). Symptoms of hypogonadism include fatigue, decreased energy level/endurance, depressed mood, decreased libido, erectile dysfunction.
  • Chronic nonmalignant pain etiology includes rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, spinal stenosis, polymyalgia, complex region pain syndrome I and II, neurinoma, phantom limb pain, neuropathic pain of other origin, scoliosis, neck pain, failed back surgery, or chronic pancreatitis.
  • All patients must have ability to complete the study in compliance with the protocol, and the ability to understand and provide written informed consent.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Chronic pain of malignant etiology (cancer-related)
  • Preexisting testosterone deficiency
  • Concomitant use of medication that could interfere with testosterone levels including antidepressant medication, spironolactone, cimetidine, clomiphene (use in the past 1 year), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), androgen, estrogen, anabolic steroid, 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors such as finasteride, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone therapy (topical testosterone within 7 days of study, injectable testosterone within 6 months of study),
  • Uncontrolled hypertension
  • Clinically significant abnormal findings on screening examination based on the Investigator's assessment
  • Known hypersensitivity to clomiphene
  • Symptomatic cataracts
  • Presence or history of known hyperprolactinemia with or without a tumor
  • End-stage renal disease
  • Any contraindication to testosterone supplementation therapy
  • Absolute contraindications to hormone supplementation therapy which include active prostate cancer (or suspicion of prostate disease unless ruled out by biopsy), prostatic specific antigen (PSA)>=3.6, breast cancer, hematocrit>=51% (hemoglobin>=17 g/dL), uncontrolled congestive heart failure (CHF), myocardial infarction, acute coronary event, unstable angina, coronary revascularization procedure in the preceding 6 months, untreated obstructive sleep apnea, high risk of prostate cancer (ethnicity or family history), or severe lower urinary tract symptoms (AUA symptom score>19).

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT01880086

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United States, New York
Weill Cornell Medical College, Department of Urology
New York, New York, United States, 10065
Sponsors and Collaborators
Weill Medical College of Cornell University
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Principal Investigator: Peter N Schlegel, MD Weill Medical College of Cornell University
Additional Information:
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Responsible Party: Weill Medical College of Cornell University Identifier: NCT01880086    
Other Study ID Numbers: Cornell-1301013472
First Posted: June 18, 2013    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: June 5, 2017
Last Update Posted: July 17, 2018
Last Verified: June 2018
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: Undecided

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: Yes
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Keywords provided by Weill Medical College of Cornell University:
Chronic pain
Low testosterone
Opioid analgesics
Opioid-induced androgen deficiency
Male infertility
Clomiphene citrate
Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators
Testosterone replacement therapy
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Infertility, Male
Opioid-Related Disorders
Genital Diseases
Urogenital Diseases
Gonadal Disorders
Endocrine System Diseases
Narcotic-Related Disorders
Substance-Related Disorders
Chemically-Induced Disorders
Mental Disorders
Genital Diseases, Male
Male Urogenital Diseases
Estrogen Antagonists
Hormone Antagonists
Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Fertility Agents, Female
Fertility Agents
Reproductive Control Agents
Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators
Estrogen Receptor Modulators