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Long Term Antihypertensive Exposure and Adverse Metabolic Effects: PEAR Follow-Up Study

This study has been completed.
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
University of Florida Identifier:
First received: August 1, 2011
Last updated: October 10, 2014
Last verified: October 2014
This is a research study of the long term effects on blood sugar and cholesterol of blood pressure lowering medications. People are invited to participate in this research study if they participated in the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses (PEAR 1, NCT00246519 or PEAR 2, NCT01203852) study and are still taking a thiazide diuretic. In PEAR, the effects on blood pressure, blood sugar, and cholesterol of the high blood pressure drugs hydrochlorothiazide and atenolol over an 18 week period were evaluated. This PEAR follow-up study will determine the effects of thiazide diuretics on blood sugar and cholesterol, but in the period since the PEAR trial. The study hypothesis is that long term exposure to thiazide diuretics results in larger increases in blood sugar and cholesterol levels than short term exposure.

Condition Intervention Phase
Drug Induced Hyperglycemia
Secondary Hyperlipidemia
Drug: Oral Glucose Tolerance Test
Phase 4

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Diagnostic
Official Title: Long Term Antihypertensive Exposure and Adverse Metabolic Effects: PEAR Follow-Up Study

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by University of Florida:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Fasting Glucose (mg/dL) [ Time Frame: Fasting glucose was obtained at time 0 min. ]

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (mg/dl h) [ Time Frame: one oral glucose tolerance test was performed with 3 time points (0 hour, 1 hour, 2 hour) ]
    Area under the curve for the OGTT was calculated for each patient using the 3 time points (0 hour, 1 hour and 2 hour). Average value for participants is provided.

  • Triglycerides (mg/dL) [ Time Frame: Triglycerides was obtained at time 0 min. ]
  • Low Density Lipoprotein (mg/dL) [ Time Frame: Low Density Lipoprotein was obtained at time 0 min. ]
  • High Density Lipoprotein (mg/dL) [ Time Frame: High Density Lipoprotein was obtained at time 0 min. ]

Enrollment: 44
Study Start Date: June 2010
Study Completion Date: August 2013
Primary Completion Date: August 2013 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Follow-Up Arm
All patients are recruited for inclusion in the Follow-Up Arm, which is the sole arm of the study. The Follow-Up Arm includes a one time study visit in which study interventions are performed. The Follow-Up Arm involves patients from the parent study who were enrolled in the follow-up study. The intervention in the Follow-Up Arm is the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test.
Drug: Oral Glucose Tolerance Test
Administration of 75 gram oral glucose load and three plasma glucose measurements (including baseline).
Other Name: Glucose Drink 100

Detailed Description:
One in three deaths in the United States is due to cardiovascular (CV) disease. One in three US adults has hypertension, a major underlying cause of CV disease. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and dyslipidemia are major contributors of CV morbidity and mortality among hypertensive patients. Thiazide diuretics and beta blockers are first line agents in the treatment of hypertension, but these commonly prescribed antihypertensive classes can contribute to dysfunction of glucose and lipid metabolism. In randomized controlled trials, reductions in CV outcomes due to blood pressure reduction with thiazide diuretic and beta blocker treatment are accompanied by increases in T2D incidence and exacerbation of dyslipidemia. CV morbidity and mortality resulting from persistent antihypertensive-related T2D or dyslipidemia may eventually outweigh benefits from blood pressure reduction, encouraging use of alternate antihypertensive classes especially in high risk patients. An accumulating body of published literature supports that adverse metabolic effects are induced by thiazide diuretics and beta blockers. However, the vast majority of evidence for adverse metabolic effects of antihypertensive drugs utilizes secondary analyses of data from randomized blood pressure reduction trials. To date, no published study has compared short and long term adverse metabolic effects of antihypertensive therapy in the same patient population. The Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses (PEAR) study is a randomized, parallel assignment trial to determine genetic influences on blood pressure response to the thiazide diuretic hydrochlorothiazide and the beta blocker atenolol. The PEAR study duration (18 weeks) is not sufficient to assess long term effects (over six months) of these antihypertensive medications. The primary aim of this study is to determine the effects of long term thiazide and beta blocker therapy on glucose and lipid metabolism in the PEAR population, in which short term effects have been assessed. Secondary analyses of this follow-up study include investigating adverse metabolic effects of long term thiazide diuretic and beta blocker therapy on insulin sensitivity and the role of potassium and uric acid in the hyperglycemic effects of thiazide diuretics.

Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 75 Years   (Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • previously enrolled in PEAR study
  • completed last PEAR study visit greater than 6 months prior
  • receive thiazide diuretic continuously since PEAR enrollment

Exclusion Criteria:

  • pregnancy
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT01409434

United States, Florida
University of Florida College of Pharmacy
Gainesville, Florida, United States, 32610
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Florida
Principal Investigator: Rhonda M Cooper-DeHoff, PharmD, MS University of Florida
Study Director: Jason H Karnes, PharmD University of Florida
  More Information

Responsible Party: University of Florida Identifier: NCT01409434     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: PEAR Follow-Up
Study First Received: August 1, 2011
Results First Received: July 16, 2014
Last Updated: October 10, 2014

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Lipid Metabolism Disorders
Metabolic Diseases
Glucose Metabolism Disorders
Antihypertensive Agents processed this record on May 22, 2017