We updated the design of this site on September 25th. Learn more.
Show more
ClinicalTrials.gov
ClinicalTrials.gov Menu

Comparison of Two Macrolides, Azithromycin and Erythromycin, for Symptomatic Treatment of Gastroparesis (AZI)

This study has been terminated.
(Original investigator left this institution, replacement investigator retired.)
Sponsor:
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT01323582
First Posted: March 25, 2011
Last Update Posted: December 5, 2014
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
Collaborator:
Metabolic Solutions Inc.
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
University of Florida
  Purpose

Erythromycin is effectively used in the treatment of Gastroparesis (GP) patients. In susceptible patients however, it has been associated with sudden cardiac death due to prolongation of QT intervals and subsequent cardiac risks through its interaction some other drugs. Azithromycin (AZI) is a macrolide antibiotic but does not have the mentioned druf interactions , has fewer gastrointestinal side effects, and fewer risks of QT prolongation and cardiac arrhythmias. Consequently, AZI avoids drawbacks of dosing with erythromycin and may be preferred as a prokinetic agent in patients on other concomitant medications.

We hope to demonstrate the effectiveness of Azithromycin (AZI) as compared to Erythromycin in the treatment of Gastroparesis (GP), and later, form the framework for larger randomized-controlled parallel studies to investigate use of AZI for treatment of GP.

Our novel hypothesis is to determine whether AZI can be used to treat GP.


Condition Intervention Phase
Gastroparesis Drug: Erythromycin Drug: Azithromycin Phase 2

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment
Masking: Double (Participant, Investigator)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Comparison of Two Macrolides, Azithromycin and Erythromycin, for Symptomatic Treatment of Gastroparesis

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by University of Florida:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Time in Minutes for 50% of the Ingested Meal to Empty the Stomach With a Standardized Breath Test: Half the of the Week 11 Value (Period 2) Less Half the of the Week 4 Value (Period 1). This Estimates the Effect Size. [ Time Frame: Weeks 4 and 11 (end of periods) ]
    Patients will be given a standardized meal enriched with a labeled material and the breath samples are then collected and analyzed. The estimated time to empty 50% (t 1/2) of the accumulated contents is recorded. Because the difference is RX-B -RX A in one group and RX A -RX B in the other, the difference between these two estimates twice the effect size. Hence the Half is applied, as is standard in the two sample method for crossover studies.

  • Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index (GCSI) Score [ Time Frame: Weeks 4 and 11 (end of periods) ]

    This is a Validated instrument for measuring symptom severity in patients with gastroparesis. This scoring is based on a Likert Scale from (0-5) with zero being no symptoms and five being very severe symptoms on 9 subscales, making the overall score range from 0-45. The higher the score, the more severe patient's symptoms.

    Reference for GCSI: Revicki DA, REntz AM, Dubois D, et al. Development and validation of a patient-assessed gastroparesis symptoms severity measure: the Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index. Ailment Pharm Ther 2003; 18: 141:50.

    Because the difference is RX-B -RX A in one group and RX A -RX B in the other, the difference between these two estimates twice the effect size. Hence the Half is applied, as is standard in the two sample method for crossover studies.



Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • NDI Score [ Time Frame: Weeks 4 and 11 (end of periods) ]

    Nepean Dyspepsia Index (NDI) is a measure of symptom status and quality of life in functional dyspepsia. This scale is scored using each subscale (Tension, interference with daily activities), Eating/drinking, Knowledge/control, work/study) and adding up the items for each of the five subscale score (2-10). Total score range would be 10-50).

    For the NDI, a lower number is better meaning the symptom is not effecting quality of life and a higher score closer to 50 is worse meaning it is effecting patients quality of life.

    Reference: Talley NJ, Verlinden M, Jones M. Quality of life in functional dyspepsia: responsiveness of the Nepean Dyspepsia Index and developement of a new 10-iten short form. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2001: 15: 207-216.

    Because the difference is RX-B -RX A in one group and RX A -RX B in the other, the difference between these two estimates twice the effect size. Hence the Half is applied, as is standard in the two sample method for crossover studies.


  • TLAG (Time From Ingestion of Meal to Start of Gastric Emptying) [ Time Frame: Weeks 4 and 11 (end of periods) ]
    This is defined as the time from ingestion of the meal to the beginning of the emptying process in minutes. Because the difference is RX-B -RX A in one group and RX A -RX B in the other, the difference between these two estimates twice the effect size. Hence the Half is applied, as is standard in the two sample method for crossover studies.

  • Change in Time to 50% Gastric Emptying: Post Test Less Baseline Pooled Over Orderings [ Time Frame: Baseline and end of treatment period ]
    Patients will be given a standardized meal enriched with a labeled material and the breath samples are then collected and analyzed. The estimated time to reaching 50% of the accumulated contents is recorded.

  • Change in Time to 50% Emptying: Post Test Less Baseline Pooled Over Orderings [ Time Frame: at baseline before initiation of the treatment and after completion of each treatment period. ]
    Patients will be given a standardized meal enriched with a labeled material and the breath samples are then collected and analyzed. The estimated time to reaching 50% of the accumulated contents is recorded.

  • Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index (GCSI) Score Change From Baseline to Post Treatment [ Time Frame: Baseline and end of treatment period ]

    This is a Validated instrument for measuring symptom severity in patients with gastroparesis. This scoring is based on a Likert Scale from (0-5) with zero being no symptom and five being very severe symptoms on 9 subscales, making the overall score range from 0-45. The higher the score, the more severe patient's symptoms are. The scale is reported in the references. The change was calculated by measuring the end of treatment minus baseline GCSI score.

    Negative value reflects this change.


  • Does GCSI Score Improve (Lower) on Treatment, Pooling the AZ Patients Over Their Treatment Periods? Endpoint is Difference in Post-test Less Baseline [ Time Frame: Baseline and end of treatment period ]

    This is a Validated instrument for measuring symptom severity in patients with gastroparesis. This scoring is based on a Likert Scale from (0-5) with zero being no symptom and five being very severe symptoms on 9 subscales, making the overall score range from 0-45. The higher the score, the more severe patient's symptoms are. The scale is reported in the references.

    This is a calculation taken with GCSI score at end of treatment minus baseline. Negative value reflects this change.



Enrollment: 26
Study Start Date: February 2009
Study Completion Date: December 2012
Primary Completion Date: December 2012 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Active Comparator: erythromycin
200mg/5ml elixir administered orally three times a day half an hour prior to meals.
Drug: Erythromycin
200mg/5ml elixir administered orally three times a day half an hour prior to meals.
Other Name: Erythromycin ethylsuccinate
Experimental: Azithromycin
The dose of Azithromycin was determined based on our dose response curve obtained on 10 healthy subjects who were given three different doses of Azithromycin, 50 mg, 100 mg and 133 mg and underwent breath testing to determine the gastric emptying half-time. These doses were determined based on a maximum safe dosage per day of Azithromycin of 400 mg given the medication would then be administered three times daily before meals. The appearance of the medication (azithromycin) and administration period was then identical to that of Erythromycin, i.e. 5ml elixir administered orally three times a day half an hour prior to meals. The total daily dosage of Azithromycin was determined after obtaining the dose- response analysis.
Drug: Azithromycin
The dose of Azithromycin given was determined based on the following study on 10 healthy subjects. In random order, each of ten healthy subjects underwent OBT studies following administration of AZI, at doses of 50mg, 100mg, and 133mg. The T½ and Tlag was then compared for the three doses by a randomized block analysis using Analysis of Variance followed by Tukey's multiple comparison. Results: The T½ for each of the respective doses of AZI (50mg, 100mg, and 133mg) was 129 ± 27, 128 ± 31, and 128 ± 16 minutes (p = 0.98). This data suggested that AZI at doses of 50mg, 100mg and 133 mg have fairly similar activity in its effects on gastric emptying in healthy subjects. Based on this analysis , we decided to use a dose of 50 mg/5 ml for administered TID prior to meals.

Detailed Description:

Gastroparesis (GP) is a chronic gastrointestinal motility disorder resulting from delayed transit of gastric contents from the stomach into the duodenum in the absence of mechanical outlet obstruction. The symptoms of GP are variable but include early satiety, bloating, nausea, vomiting, and epigastric abdominal pain. Although the true prevalence of the disorder is unknown, symptoms suggestive of GP are present in 7-15% of the population with an estimated one-third of diabetic patients in tertiary care settings having abnormal gastric emptying studies. Yet, despite the significant healthcare and economic costs due to frequent hospitalization in these patients, treatment of GP is difficult due to the lack of available treatment options and the often potential side effects of available prokinetic agents, including cardiac side effects such as QT prolongation, sudden cardiac death, and torsade de pointes.

One such medication used for treatment of GP is erythromycin. Erythromycin has its drawbacks. Several reports of cardiac arrhythmias associated with use of either oral or intravenous (IV) Erythromycin have been reported. This finding sparked our interest in another macrolide, Azithromycin (AZI), which does not have the drug-drug interactions as seen with erythromycin and is not metabolized by the CYP3A inhibitors, therefore having fewer cardiac side effects.

In This study our primary goal is to determine whether AZI can be used to treat GP.

  Eligibility

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.


Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 65 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • presenting to gastroenterology motility specialty clinics at the University of Florida (UF), who meet the clinical and radiologic diagnostic criteria for diagnosis of GP

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Any history of mechanical obstruction
  • Gastrointestinal malignancy
  • Current use of prokinetics such as cisapride, pimozide, or anticholinergic medication which cannot be discontinued 72 hrs prior to study
  • Abnormal upper endoscopy with finding of erosions or ulcerations
  • Helicobacter pylori infection in past 6 months
  • Recent abdominal surgery < 6 months
  • Cardiac history with EKG finding of QTC > 450 done on a screening test
  • Detected renal or hepatic dysfunction described as a GFR <10 ml/min and ALT/AST values > 2 times the normal level in our laboratory
  • Allergy to macrolide antibiotics
  • Psychiatric history other than anxiety or depression
  • Predominant symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome such as constipation or diarrhea
  • Uncontrolled diabetes with fasting blood glucose levels > 180 mg/dL, due to effect of hyperglycemia on gastric emptying. For patients with diabetes, blood glucose levels will be recorded in a patient diary.
  • Pregnant or nursing females
  • Any history of myasthenia gravis
  • Current use of Coumadin, lovastatin, simvastatin Nelfinavir, theophylline, digoxin, ergotamine/dihydroergotamine products, benzodiazepines, and sildenafil (this will be discontinued for the duration of the clinical trial if subject is on this medication).
  • History of elevated liver function studies or CPKs.
  • Pregnancy : A urine pregnancy test will be performed at the beginning of each treatment period and only subjects who are not pregnant will be enrolled for the study.
  Contacts and Locations
Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT01323582


Locations
United States, Florida
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida, United States, 32610
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Florida
Metabolic Solutions Inc.
Investigators
Principal Investigator: Baharak Moshiree, MD University of Florida
  More Information

Publications:
Ray WA, Murray KT, Meredith S, Narasimhulu SS, Hall K, Stein CM. Oral erythromycin and the risk of sudden death from cardiac causes. N Engl J Med. 2004 Sep 9;351(11):1089-96.
Frank L, Kleinman L, Ganoczy D, McQuaid K, Sloan S, Eggleston A, Tougas G, Farup C. Upper gastrointestinal symptoms in North America: prevalence and relationship to healthcare utilization and quality of life. Dig Dis Sci. 2000 Apr;45(4):809-18.
Talley NJ, Locke GR 3rd, Lahr BD, Zinsmeister AR, Tougas G, Ligozio G, Rojavin MA, Tack J. Functional dyspepsia, delayed gastric emptying, and impaired quality of life. Gut. 2006 Jul;55(7):933-9. Epub 2005 Dec 1.
Soykan I, Sivri B, Sarosiek I, Kiernan B, McCallum RW. Demography, clinical characteristics, psychological and abuse profiles, treatment, and long-term follow-up of patients with gastroparesis. Dig Dis Sci. 1998 Nov;43(11):2398-404.
Wisialowski T, Crimin K, Engtrakul J, O'Donnell J, Fermini B, Fossa AA. Differentiation of arrhythmia risk of the antibacterials moxifloxacin, erythromycin, and telithromycin based on analysis of monophasic action potential duration alternans and cardiac instability. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 Jul;318(1):352-9. Epub 2006 Apr 13.
Milberg P, Eckardt L, Bruns HJ, Biertz J, Ramtin S, Reinsch N, Fleischer D, Kirchhof P, Fabritz L, Breithardt G, Haverkamp W. Divergent proarrhythmic potential of macrolide antibiotics despite similar QT prolongation: fast phase 3 repolarization prevents early afterdepolarizations and torsade de pointes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Oct;303(1):218-25.
Choi MG, Camilleri M, Burton DD, Zinsmeister AR, Forstrom LA, Nair KS. [13C]octanoic acid breath test for gastric emptying of solids: accuracy, reproducibility, and comparison with scintigraphy. Gastroenterology. 1997 Apr;112(4):1155-62.
Ziegler D, Schadewaldt P, Pour Mirza A, Piolot R, Schommartz B, Reinhardt M, Vosberg H, Brösicke H, Gries FA. [13C]octanoic acid breath test for non-invasive assessment of gastric emptying in diabetic patients: validation and relationship to gastric symptoms and cardiovascular autonomic function. Diabetologia. 1996 Jul;39(7):823-30.
Bromer MQ, Kantor SB, Wagner DA, Knight LC, Maurer AH, Parkman HP. Simultaneous measurement of gastric emptying with a simple muffin meal using [13C]octanoate breath test and scintigraphy in normal subjects and patients with dyspeptic symptoms. Dig Dis Sci. 2002 Jul;47(7):1657-63.
Ghoos YF, Maes BD, Geypens BJ, Mys G, Hiele MI, Rutgeerts PJ, Vantrappen G. Measurement of gastric emptying rate of solids by means of a carbon-labeled octanoic acid breath test. Gastroenterology. 1993 Jun;104(6):1640-7.
Nyrén O, Adami HO, Bates S, Bergström R, Gustavsson S, Lööf L, Sjödén PO. Self-rating of pain in nonulcer dyspepsia. A methodological study comparing a new fixed-point scale and the visual analogue scale. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1987 Aug;9(4):408-14.
Chey WD, Shapiro B, Zawadski A, Goodman K. Gastric emptying characteristics of a novel (13)C-octanoate-labeled muffin meal. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2001 May-Jun;32(5):394-9.
Lee JS, Camilleri M, Zinsmeister A, et al. Accurate simple measurement of gastric emptying by 13C octanoic acid breath test (OBT) in diabetes. Gastroenterology 1999; 116: G4207.
Ware JE Jr, Snow KK, Kosinski M, Gandek B. SF-36 Health Survey: Manual and Interpretation Guide. Boston, MA: The Health Institute, New England Medical Center, 1993.
Talley NJ, Haque M, Wyeth JW, Stace NH, Tytgat GN, Stanghellini V, Holtmann G, Verlinden M, Jones M. Development of a new dyspepsia impact scale: the Nepean Dyspepsia Index. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1999 Feb;13(2):225-35.

Responsible Party: University of Florida
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01323582     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 645-2008
First Submitted: March 24, 2011
First Posted: March 25, 2011
Results First Submitted: May 9, 2014
Results First Posted: December 5, 2014
Last Update Posted: December 5, 2014
Last Verified: December 2014

Keywords provided by University of Florida:
Gastroparesis
Gastroparesis Treatment
Gastric Emptying
Prokinetic Agents
Macrolides
Erythromycin
Azithromycin
Erythromycin Cardiac Side-effects
Erythromycin drug interactions
AZI

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Gastroparesis
Stomach Diseases
Gastrointestinal Diseases
Digestive System Diseases
Paralysis
Neurologic Manifestations
Signs and Symptoms
Erythromycin
Erythromycin Estolate
Erythromycin Ethylsuccinate
Erythromycin stearate
Anti-Bacterial Agents
Anti-Infective Agents
Gastrointestinal Agents
Protein Synthesis Inhibitors
Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action


To Top