Differential Effects of Clomiphene Citrate in Women Undergoing Superovulation

This study has been completed.
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Jessica Pittman, University of Utah
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
First received: November 9, 2010
Last updated: December 19, 2014
Last verified: December 2014

Clomiphene citrate is commonly used for ovulation induction in women with anovulation, correction of luteal phase deficiency or for superovulation as empiric therapy for unexplained infertility. Superovulation using clomiphene, usually with intrauterine insemination, is usually regarded as first line therapy for unexplained infertility, infertility due to mild endometriosis, or infertility with mild or moderate compromise of the male factor. The side effect profile reported by some women using clomiphene citrate is similar to symptoms of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), including tension, irritability, depressed mood, affective lability, lack of energy, difficulty concentrating, and physical symptoms such as breast tenderness, bloating, headache joint and muscle pain. Few studies have been performed to examine the relationship between clomiphene citrate and mood symptoms; however, these studies have been limited by their small sample size, potential for recall bias and lack of randomization. Moreover, the experience of infertility is dysphoric in and of itself. Therefore, a rigorous evaluation of whether, when in the cycle, and how often clomiphene is associated with mood changes is needed. Such a study would add to the body of literature on this topic in three important ways: 1) use of prospective data collection to more accurately identify commonly reported symptoms, 2) characterize the timing of symptom occurrence relative to treatment cycle, and 3) provide information relevant to planning of future studies involving targeted treatment of clomiphene citrate induced symptoms. If clomiphene use is shown to affect mood, the results would point to an important avenue for psychopharmacologic insight into relationships between mood and sex steroids.


Specific Aim #1: To identify psychological and physical symptoms experienced by women taking clomiphene citrate for superovulation in a prospective, placebo controlled trial setting.

Specific Aim #2: To determine whether measures of the emotional and physical state prior to the administration of clomiphene, predict the occurrence of mood changes during the five days of clomiphene administration and in the late follicular and luteal phases of the cycle in which clomiphene was administered.

Condition Intervention
Other: Placebo
Drug: Clomiphene

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment
Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Investigator)
Official Title: Differential Effects of Clomiphene Citrate in Women Undergoing Superovulation: A Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Crossover Study

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by University of Utah:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Calendar of Premenstrual Experiences (COPE) [ Time Frame: 1 year ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

Enrollment: 20
Study Start Date: January 2010
Study Completion Date: May 2011
Primary Completion Date: May 2011 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Active Comparator: Clomphine
Each participant will take assigned medication (clomiphene citrate 50mg or placebo) on days 3-7 of her menstrual cycle.
Drug: Clomiphene
Each participant will take assigned medication (clomiphene citrate 50mg or placebo) on days 3-7 of her menstrual cycle.
Placebo Comparator: Placebo
Each participant will take assigned medication (clomiphene citrate 50mg or placebo) on days 3-7 of her menstrual cycle.
Other: Placebo
Each participant will take assigned medication (clomiphene citrate 50mg or placebo) on days 3-7 of her menstrual cycle.


Ages Eligible for Study:   25 Years to 40 Years
Genders Eligible for Study:   Female
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Menstruating women, ages 25-40, with regular menstrual cycles 23-35 days in length who elect to treat unexplained infertility using clomiphene citrate for superovulation combined with intrauterine insemination will be eligible for participation in this study.
  • Eligible participants will be identified by physicians at the Utah Center for Reproductive Medicine at the University of Utah and will be provided written informed consent before being randomized to treatment groups.
  • Male partner's semen analysis must show a sperm density of at least 10 million per ml, and motility of 20% or greater and normal morphology using World Health Organization (WHO) criteria.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Women with a history of depression or anxiety disorder requiring hospitalization or treatment lasting more than six months and women who currently or have received treatment during the previous six months for anxiety, depression or other psychiatric disorders listed in the 4th Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) will be excluded.
  • Women who have previously received treatment with clomiphene citrate will also be excluded from the study.
  • Women using tobacco or illicit drugs will be excluded from study participation.
  • Because the measurement tool used to measure symptoms has been validated only in women who can read and speak English, women who cannot speak and read English will not be eligible to participate in the study.
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Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01291056

United States, Utah
University of Utah
Salt Lake City, Utah, United States, 84108
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Utah
Principal Investigator: Jessica Pittman, M.D. University of Utah
  More Information

No publications provided

Responsible Party: Jessica Pittman, M.D., University of Utah
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01291056     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 00038807 
Study First Received: November 9, 2010
Last Updated: December 19, 2014
Health Authority: United States: Institutional Review Board

Keywords provided by University of Utah:
Clomiphene citrate
Mood symptoms
Effects of clomiphene on mood

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Citric Acid
Chelating Agents
Estrogen Antagonists
Estrogen Receptor Modulators
Fertility Agents
Fertility Agents, Female
Hematologic Agents
Hormone Antagonists
Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Pharmacologic Actions
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Reproductive Control Agents
Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators
Sequestering Agents
Therapeutic Uses

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on February 08, 2016