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Effect of Ranitidine on Hyper-IgE Recurrent Infection (Job's) Syndrome

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT00527878
Recruitment Status : Terminated (Failure to enroll adequate patient numbers due to small number of eligible patients)
First Posted : September 11, 2007
Results First Posted : February 4, 2013
Last Update Posted : February 4, 2013
Information provided by:
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC)

Brief Summary:

This study will examine the safety and effectiveness of ranitidine (Zantac) in patients with Hyper-IgE recurrent infection syndrome, a disease characterized by recurrent infections of the ears, sinuses, lungs and skin, and abnormal levels of the antibody immunoglobulin E (IgE).

Patients age 2 and older who have Hyper-IgE recurrent infection syndrome and who have had chronic or frequent infections in the last 12 months may be eligible for this study.

Participants are randomly assigned to take ranitidine or placebo in pill or liquid form twice a day for 12 months. In addition to treatment, patients undergo the following procedures during visits scheduled on day 0 of the study (baseline) and at 3, 12, 15 and 24 months. Evaluations at 6, 9, 18 and 21 months are by telephone.

  • Medical history and physical examination - baseline and 3 and 24 months.
  • Clinical severity score - baseline and 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 months.
  • Dermatology exam - baseline and 3, 12, 15 and 24 months.
  • Pulmonary function test - baseline and 12 and 24 months.
  • Chest CT - baseline and 12 and 24 months.
  • Quality of life assessment - baseline and 3, 12, 15 and 24 months.
  • Pregnancy testing - baseline and 3, 12, 15 and 24 months.
  • HIV test - baseline and 12 and 24 months.
  • Contraception evaluation - baseline and 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 months.
  • Missed school/work days assessment - baseline and 3, 12, 15 and 24 months.
  • Medication adherence - baseline and 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 months.

In addition to the above procedures, participants who are not enrolled in study 00-I-0159 have a baseline scoliosis series and genetic consult.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
JOB's Syndrome Hyper-IgE Recurrent Infection Syndrome Immune Deficiency Drug: Ranitidine Drug: Placebo Phase 2

Detailed Description:
Hyper-immunoglobulin E (IgE) syndrome (HIES) is a rare primary immunodeficiency characterized by eczema, recurrent skin and lung infections, elevated serum IgE, and multiple connective tissue and skeletal abnormalities. The autosomal dominant form of HIES is caused primarily by a mutation in the STAT3 gene. Patients with HIES produce IgE antibodies specific for Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus, two of the common pathogens in this population. We hypothesize that the presence of pathogen-specific IgE, combined with continuous exposure to these ubiquitous agents, leads to chronic IgE-mediated histamine release from basophils and mast cells, with subsequent pathogen-specific immune tolerance and an increase in pathogen-specific T regulatory cells. We plan to test this hypothesis through clinical and immunologic evaluation of HIES patients before, during, and after histamine-2 receptor (H2) blocker therapy with ranitidine through a prospective, placebo-controlled crossover study. We chose this therapy because histamine has been shown to stimulate interleukin-10 (IL-10), a major down regulatory cytokine, through the H2 receptor, and clinical improvement has been observed in several patients treated with H2 blockers. Laboratory studies will include determinations of pathogen-specific immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4):IgE ratios, basophil activation, IL-10 producing regulatory T-cells, cellular proliferative responses to staphylococcal and candidal antigens, and functional testing of regulatory T-cells. Clinical evaluations will include comprehensive history and physical examination, dermatologic evaluation, genetic evaluation for clinical severity scoring of HIES, pulmonary function tests, and chest computerized tomography (CT) examination. Through this study, we will further our understanding of the immunologic abnormalities of HIES and determine whether a larger prospective, double-blind trial of H2 blockade as adjunctive therapy for HIES is indicated.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 16 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment
Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Cross-Over Study Assessing the Role of Pathogen-Specific IgE and Histamine Release in the Hyper-IgE Syndrome and the Effect of Ranitidine on Laboratory and Clinical Manifestations
Study Start Date : September 2007
Actual Primary Completion Date : June 2011
Actual Study Completion Date : June 2011

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Placebo/Ranitidine crossover
Patients took placebo for 12 months and then ranitidine for 12 months
Drug: Ranitidine
Double blinded, randomized placebo controlled crossover study. Patients received 12 months of placebo and 12 months of treatment medication (ranitidine).

Drug: Placebo
Experimental: Ranitidine/placebo crossover
Ranitidine for one year followed by placebo for one year
Drug: Ranitidine
Double blinded, randomized placebo controlled crossover study. Patients received 12 months of placebo and 12 months of treatment medication (ranitidine).

Drug: Placebo

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Number of Infections in Subjects With HIES. [ Time Frame: 1 year on intervention ]
    Patients received one year of treatment medication and one year of placebo. New infections (bacterial, fungal, viral or parasitic) were defined as those requiring an addition or change of an antimicrobial (including topical, oral or intravenous therapies) or those requiring a medical procedure (i.e., incision and drainage of a skin abscess, warm soaks to aid abscess drainage or sinus drainage).

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. New Skin Infections [ Time Frame: 12 months placebo/12 months ranitidine ]
    Patients reported the number of new skin infections

  2. New Lung Infections [ Time Frame: 12 months placebo and 12 months ranitidine ]
    Number of new infection while on placebo or study drug

  3. Clinical Severity Score [ Time Frame: one year on ranitidine and one year on placebo ]
    Scoring that was completed every 3 months. Clinical severity scored had outcomes that could range from 0 to 121 with 0 being the least severe and 121 being the most severe.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.

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Ages Eligible for Study:   2 Years and older   (Child, Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

    1. Male and female patients with the diagnosis of Hyper IgE Recurrent Infection (Job) syndrome. Mutations in the STAT3 gene account for the majority, if not all cases of HIES. However as the full genetics of HIES remains unknown, we will use clinical criteria, including the expert opinion of the investigators, as well as a score greater than 40 by the diagnostic scoring system used in protocol 00-I-0159.
    2. A chronic (greater than 4 weeks duration) infection or greater than 2 acute infections within the last 12 months. Acute infections can include but are not limited to: pneumonia, abscesses, sinusitis, skin infections, mucocutaneous candidiasis and ear infections. Chronic infections include continuous or intermittent symptoms despite appropriate therapeutic interventions for at least 4 weeks, including but not limited to chronic lung infiltrates with productive cough, chronic ear drainage despite topical therapy, chronic or intermittent drainage from a single abscess site, and/or chronic signs of sinusitis on sinus CT scan.
    3. Patients aged 2 years and above. There is no upper age limit. We are excluding children less than 2 years of age, as we do not expect them to meet the first inclusion criterion, having a score high enough to be diagnosed with HIES.
    4. Patients have to be at their own personal clinical baseline for at least 2 weeks duration. Patients will not start the study medication during an acute exacerbation of and infection.
    5. The patient or the patient's guardian will be willing and capable of providing informed consent after initial counseling by clinical staff. Separate consent forms for all interventional procedures will be obtained after explanation of the specific procedure.
    6. Patients must agree to have blood stored for future studies of the immune system and/or other medical conditions.
    7. Women of childbearing potential must agree to use adequate contraception (hormonal or barrier method of birth control; abstinence) prior to study entry and for the duration of study participation.
    8. Patients may be concurrently enrolled on other protocols as long as the Principal Investigator (PI) is informed.


  1. Pregnancy. Ranitidine is pregnancy class B, and likely safe in pregnancy, but as this has not been studied, pregnant patients will be excluded. In addition, hormonal changes that occur during pregnancy may affect the skin manifestations and frequency of infection.
  2. Hypersensitivity to ranitidine or any of the ingredients in ranitidine.
  3. Pre-existing medications or conditions for which the investigators judge that ranitidine should not be given.
  4. Patient or investigators unwilling to stop baseline H2 receptor antagonist therapy (over the counter or prescription) such as Tagamet (Cimetidine), Pepcid (Famotidine), and Axid (Nizatidine). H2 receptor antagonist therapy must be stopped for 3 months prior to study initiation. Patients who are receiving H2 receptor antagonist therapy for gastritis, acid reflux, or peptic ulcer disease will be offered changing their regimen to a proton pump inhibitor or other non-H2 receptor antagonist therapy to allow for study enrollment (3 months after stopping the H2 receptor antagonist).
  5. Patients under the age of 2 years
  6. Patients with HIV, receiving chemotherapy or who have a malignancy.
  7. Any condition that in the judgment of the investigator would place the subject at undue risk or compromise the results or interpretation of the study.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT00527878

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United States, Maryland
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, 9000 Rockville Pike
Bethesda, Maryland, United States, 20892
Sponsors and Collaborators
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
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Responsible Party: Steven M. Holland, M.D./National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health Identifier: NCT00527878    
Other Study ID Numbers: 070218
First Posted: September 11, 2007    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: February 4, 2013
Last Update Posted: February 4, 2013
Last Verified: February 2013
Keywords provided by National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC):
Hyper-IgE Recurrent Infection Syndrome
Ranitidine Therapy
Job's Syndrome
Cross-Over Study
Double-Blind Placebo Controlled
Hyper-IgE Syndrome
Job Syndrome
Immune Deficiency
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Job Syndrome
Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes
Pathologic Processes
Immune System Diseases
Phagocyte Bactericidal Dysfunction
Leukocyte Disorders
Hematologic Diseases
Ranitidine bismuth citrate
Anti-Ulcer Agents
Gastrointestinal Agents
Histamine H2 Antagonists
Histamine Antagonists
Histamine Agents
Neurotransmitter Agents
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Physiological Effects of Drugs