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Randomized Trial of the Positive Action Program in Hawaii Schools

This study has been completed.
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
, National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Identifier:
First received: May 19, 2006
Last updated: January 11, 2017
Last verified: September 2014
The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of the Positive Action program on reducing negative behaviors, increasing positive behaviors and improving academic achievement of elementary school students.

Condition Intervention
Substance Use
Pro-social Behavior
Academic Achievement
Behavioral: Positive Action

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: The Positive Action Program: Outcomes and Mediators

Further study details as provided by National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA):

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Self-reported attitudes and behaviors [ Time Frame: 2001-2006 ]
  • Teacher reports of behaviors [ Time Frame: 2001-2006 ]
  • Parent reports of student behaviors [ Time Frame: 2001-2006 ]

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • School-level academic achievement test scores [ Time Frame: 2000-2007 ]
  • School-level reports of disciplinary referrals [ Time Frame: 2000-2007 ]
  • School-level reports of school quality [ Time Frame: 2000-2007 ]

Enrollment: 2500
Study Start Date: April 2001
Study Completion Date: June 2006
Primary Completion Date: June 2006 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
No Intervention: Control
Business as usual
Experimental: Treatment
Positive Action
Behavioral: Positive Action
See publications

Detailed Description:
This project will: 1) evaluate the efficacy of a comprehensive, multi-grade, multi-year program, the Positive Action program (PA) designed to reduce student problem behaviors (including drug use and violence), disciplinary referrals and suspensions, and academic underachievement; 2) evaluate the effects of the program on the presumed/theoretical mediator variables; and 3) assess which of these changes in mediator variables actually mediate the effects of the program on behavior and school performance. The Hawaiian school district has agreed to implement a randomized trial of the PA program. We randomly assigned schools to PA or control conditions from strata matched on multiple indicators of risk. PA schools will receive the full PA program for four years (the 2002-03 through 2005-06 school years). This includes all materials for all students (at all grades), families, teachers, and principal, plus community kits; training for teachers and other interested staff; and continuous technical support and monitoring by a PA staff person. Data on behavior and academic achievement will be obtained from school archival records for all students for all years and, where appropriate for several years prior to the study. Students in grades 1 and 3 in the 2001-02 school year and their parents and teachers will also be followed through the project with surveys every year. The subject population will contain equal portions of males and females, and proportionate numbers of the major ethnic groups on Oahu (Hawaiian or part-Hawaiian, white, Asian, Other). Analyses will test for program effects on all hypothesized mediating variables and outcomes, and the hypothesized mediational pathways.

Ages Eligible for Study:   6 Years and older   (Child, Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Public elementary schools K-5 or K-6
  • All students in the study cohorts

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Schools performing in top 50%
  Contacts and Locations
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Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT00328445

United States, Idaho
Positive Action, Inc.
Twin Falls, Idaho, United States, 83301
United States, Illinois
University of Illinois at Chicago
Chicago, Illinois, United States, 60607
United States, Oregon
Oregon State University
Corvallis, Oregon, United States, 97331
Sponsors and Collaborators
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
Principal Investigator: Brian R Flay, D.Phil. Oregon State University
  More Information

Additional Information:
Responsible Party: , Principal Investigator, National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Identifier: NCT00328445     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: R01DA013474 ( US NIH Grant/Contract Award Number )
Study First Received: May 19, 2006
Last Updated: January 11, 2017

Keywords provided by National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA):
Classroom management
School-wide climate
Parent involvement processed this record on April 28, 2017