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GVAX Plus Checkpoint Blockade in Neuroblastoma

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Know the risks and potential benefits of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our disclaimer for details.
 
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04239040
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : January 23, 2020
Last Update Posted : October 12, 2021
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Natalie B. Collins, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute

Brief Summary:

This research clinical trial is studying the creation and administration of GVAX, an irradiated GM-CSF secreting, autologous neuroblastoma cell vaccine (GVAX) in combination with nivolumab and ipilimumab as a possible treatment for neuroblastoma.

The names of the study drugs involved in this study are:

  • GVAX Vaccine, an immunotherapy developed from surgically removed tumor tissue
  • Nivolumab
  • Ipilimumab

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Neuroblastoma Pediatric Solid Tumor Procedure: Tissue collection Biological: GVAX vaccine Drug: Nivolumab Drug: Ipilimumab Phase 1

Detailed Description:

This research study is a Phase I clinical trial, which tests the safety of an investigational drug and also tries to define the appropriate dose of the investigational drug to use for further studies. "Investigational" means that the drug is being studied.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved the GVAX vaccine as a treatment for any disease.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved nivolumab or ipilimumab for your specific disease but it has been approved for other uses.

The research study procedures include: screening for eligibility and study treatment including evaluations and follow up visits.

This phase 1 study will be conducted in 2 parts

  • In the first part, participants will, as part of standard of care procedure to remove cancerous tissue, undergo neuroblastoma cell collection from a portion of resected tumor.
  • Those cells will then be used to create the vaccine which will be stored for potential use during the second part of this research study.
  • In the second part, participants who did not respond to standard therapy will receive the GVAX vaccine along with nivolumab and ipilimumab.

The study treatment will continue for up to 24 months and participants will be followed for 2 years after last study treatment (if received at least one vaccination).

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 26 participants
Allocation: N/A
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Phase 1 Study of Combination Nivolumab and Ipilimumab With Irradiated GM-CSF Secreting Autologous Neuroblastoma Cell Vaccine (GVAX) for Relapsed or Refractory Neuroblastoma
Actual Study Start Date : January 29, 2020
Estimated Primary Completion Date : January 1, 2027
Estimated Study Completion Date : January 1, 2027

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine


Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Relapsed or Refractory High Risk Neuroblastoma

Tissue Collection of Cancerous cells during primary or clinically indicated surgical resection.

Manufacture and cryopreservation of vaccine. Treatment with vaccine, nivolumab and ipilimumab.

  • Vaccine injected weekly over initial 21 day cycle, biweekly for cycles 2-4 of 21 day cycle duration and cycles 5 and subsequent of 28 day cycle duration until vaccine supply is exhausted.
  • Intravenous infusion of nivolumab every 3 weeks, for cycles 1-4. Cycles 1-4 are 21 days
  • Intravenous infusion of ipilimumab every 3 weeks, for cycles 1-4. Cycles 1-4 are 21 days
  • Intravenous infusion of nivolumab biweekly for cycle 5 and subsequent of 28 day cycle duration. Subsequent 28 day cycles will last up to 2 years.
Procedure: Tissue collection
Collection of cancerous tissue to create GVAX vaccine or irradiated GMCSF-secreting autologous neuroblastoma cell vaccine at time of clinically indicated surgical procedure

Biological: GVAX vaccine
Vaccine injected weekly over initial 21 day cycle, biweekly for cycles 2-4 of 21 day cycle duration and cycles 5 and subsequent of 28 day cycle duration until vaccine supply is exhausted.
Other Name: GMCSF-secreting autologous neuroblastoma cell vaccine

Drug: Nivolumab

Intravenous infusion of nivolumab every 3 weeks, for cycles 1-4. Cycles 1-4 are 21 days

Intravenous infusion of nivolumab biweekly for cycle 5 and subsequent of 28 day cycle duration. Subsequent 28 day cycles will last up to 2 years.

Other Name: Opdivo

Drug: Ipilimumab
Intravenous infusion of ipilimumab every 3 weeks, for cycles 1-4. Cycles 1-4 are 21 days
Other Name: Yervoy




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. The number of participants with grade 4 toxicities [ Time Frame: Up to 2 years ]
    To assess safety, the number of grade 4 toxicities associated with vaccine and nivolumab/ipilimumab using the NCI Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 5

  2. Number of Participants to receive 6 vaccinations [ Time Frame: Up to 2 years ]
    Feasibility will be assessed by the ability to make vaccine from available biopsy material in quantities sufficient for six vaccinations, for a given patient. A success rate (number of patients for whom quantity sufficient for six vaccinations exist / total number of eligible patients) under 65% may imply that the method needs further development or that the amount of tissue available in this population limits the feasibility of this strategy. Total number of vaccine doses administered per patient will also be counted


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Progression-free survival (PFS) [ Time Frame: time from receipt of first GVAX vaccine dose to the earlier of progression, relapse or death due to disease up to 48 months ]
    Kaplan-Meier plots, 1-year PFS estimate will be calculated, along with the standard errors

  2. Overall best response [ Time Frame: Start of the treatment until disease progression/recurrence up to 48 months ]
    Each patient will be categorized as a responder (≥PR) or a non-responder (<PR) by INRC criteria

  3. Overall Survival [ Time Frame: Time from receipt of the first GVAX vaccine dose to death due to any cause up to 48 months ]
    Kaplan-Meier plots, 1-year OS estimates will be calculated, along with the standard errors



Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.


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Ages Eligible for Study:   1 Year and older   (Child, Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Eligibility Criteria for neuroblastoma cell collection and vaccine manufacture

    • Patients with histologically confirmed neuroblastoma, who meet the Children's Oncology Group (COG) high-risk group assignment criteria
    • Lansky/Karnofsky performance status ≥50% (see Appendix A)
    • Participants must have clinical indication for surgical resection of their neuroblastoma and undergo resection at Boston Children's Hospital
    • Ability to understand and/or the willingness of their parent or legally authorized representative to sign a written informed consent document.
  • Eligibility Criteria to commence to receive study treatment with irradiated GM-CSF secreting autologous tumor vaccine, nivolumab, and ipilimumab

    • Histologically confirmed high-risk neuroblastoma based on COG assignment criteria
    • Residual disease at the end of standard therapy or relapsed neuroblastoma in any disease state (including CR) by clinical criteria (histologic confirmation of relapse or residual disease is not required).
    • Age > 1 year of age
    • Lansky/Karnofsky performance status ≥50% (see Appendix A)
    • Prior Therapy - Patients must have fully recovered from the acute toxic effects of all prior anti-cancer therapy and must meet the following minimal duration from prior anti-cancer directed therapy prior to enrollment

      • Myelosuppressive Chemotherapy: At least 21 days after the last dose of myelosuppressive chemotherapy
      • Small molecule biologic therapy: At least 7 days following the last dose of a biologic agent.
      • Monoclonal antibodies ≥ 7 days or 3 half-lives whichever is longer but no longer than 30 days (with recovery of any associated toxicities)
      • External beam irradiation: ≥ 14 days after small port XRT, ≥ 12 weeks after large port radiation (≥ 50% of the marrow space) including total body irradiation, craniospinal radiation, whole abdomen and whole lung radiation
      • 131I- MIBG therapy ≥ 6 weeks
      • Autologous stem cell infusion following myeloablative therapy ≥ 6 weeks
      • Any other investigational agents ≥ 14 days
  • Organ function requirements

    • Adequate bone marrow function defined as:

      • ANC >/= 500/µL
      • Hgb >8 (may not be transfused)
      • Platelet count ≥30,000 (may not be transfused)
    • Hepatic Function:

      • Total bilirubin ≤ 1.5 x upper limit of normal for age
      • ALT (SGPT) ≤ 3 x upper limit of normal (135 U/L) For the purpose of this study, the ULN for ALT is 45 U/L
    • Renal Function, a serum creatinine based on age/sex as follows:

      • Maximum Serum Creatinine (mg/dL)

        • Age 1 to <2 years Male: 0.6 Female: 0.6
        • Age 2 to < 6 years Male:0.8 Female 0.8
        • Age 6 to < 10 years Male:1 Female: 1
        • Age 10 to < 13 years Male: 1.2 Female: 1.2
        • Age 13 to < 16 years Male: 1.5 Female: 1.4
        • Age ≥ 16 years Male: 1.7 Female: 1.4
      • OR Creatinine clearance ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 for participants with creatinine levels greater than the above age/sex maximum allowed values
    • Adequate Pulmonary Function Defined as:

      • No evidence of dyspnea at rest
      • No exercise intolerance due to pulmonary insufficiency
      • Pulse oximetry > 92% while breathing room air
    • Adequate pancreatic function defined as

      • Serum lipase </= ULN at baseline.
    • No ≥ Grade 2 non-hematologic toxicity
    • Absolute eosinophil count ≤ 5000/ul
    • Negative B-HCG pregnancy test in females of childbearing potential. Must be drawn or repeated within 24 hours prior to initial administration of study drugs
    • Women of childbearing potential (WOCBP) receiving nivolumab will be agree to adhere to contraception for a period of 5 months after the last dose of nivolumab. Men receiving nivolumab and who are sexually active with WOCBP will agree to adhere to contraception for a period of 7 months after the last dose of nivolumab.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Participants who are receiving any other investigational agents.
  • No systemic corticosteroid therapy, other than replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency or transfusion premedication. Participants who are receiving or have received lympholytic steroid (>=40mg/m2 prednisone equivalent) therapy within 4 weeks of first anticipated vaccine administration are excluded, because high-dose steroid therapy is expected to significantly limit the ability of the immune system to respond to GVAX vaccination.
  • Participants with known parenchymal brain metastases.
  • History of allergic reactions attributed to compounds of similar chemical or biologic composition to GM-CSF or DMSO.
  • Participants with any form of primary immunodeficiency.
  • Females who are pregnant are excluded from this study because GVAX is an investigational biologic with the potential for teratogenic or abortifacient effects. Because there is an unknown but potential risk for adverse events in nursing infants secondary to treatment of the mother with GVAX, breastfeeding should be discontinued if the mother is treated with GVAX
  • Uncontrolled intercurrent illness or serious uncontrolled medical disorder including, but not limited to, ongoing or active infection, symptomatic congestive heart failure, unstable angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmia and/or pronounced disturbances of the electrical conduction system of the heart or psychiatric illness/social situations that would limit compliance with study requirements.
  • Known HIV-positive participants on combination antiretroviral therapy are ineligible because of the effect of GVAX vaccination on the disease course is unknown and because the underlying disease is expected to limit the ability of the immune system to respond to GVAX vaccination.
  • Clinically relevant known active infection including active hepatitis B or C or any other concurrent disease which in the judgment of the Investigator would make the subject inappropriate for enrollment on this study
  • History of a malignancy other than neuroblastoma with exception of the following circumstances:

    • Patients with a history of malignancy who have been adequately treated and have been disease-free for at least 2 years are not excluded.
    • Patients with adequately treated active non-invasive cancers (such as non-melanomatous skin cancer or in-situ bladder, cervical and breast cancers) are not excluded.
  • Has received prior therapy with an anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1, anti PD L2 or anti-CTLA4 agent or with an agent directed to another stimulatory or co-inhibitory T-cell receptor (e.g. OX 40, CD137).
  • Has active autoimmune disease that has required systemic treatment in the past 12 months, or a documented history of clinically severe autoimmune disease, or a syndrome that requires systemic steroids or immunosuppressive agents. Subjects with vitiligo or resolved childhood asthma/atopy are exceptions. Intermittent use of bronchodilators or local steroid injections are not excluded. Replacement therapy (e.g. thyroxine, insulin, or physiologic corticosteroid replacement therapy for adrenal or pituitary insufficiency, etc.) is not considered a form of systemic treatment. Autoimmune diagnoses not listed must be approved by the protocol chair.
  • Has a history of (non-infectious) pneumonitis that required steroids or has current pneumonitis.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT04239040


Contacts
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Contact: Natalie B Collins, MD, PHD 617-632-3027 natalie_collins@dfci.harvard.edu

Locations
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United States, Massachusetts
Boston Children's Hospital Recruiting
Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02115
Contact: Natalie B. Collins, MD       nbcollins@partners.org   
Principal Investigator: Natalie B Collins, MD         
Dana Farber Cancer Institite Recruiting
Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02115
Contact: Natalie B Collins, MD    617-632-3027    nbcollins@partners.org   
Contact: M         
Principal Investigator: Natalie B. Collins, MD         
Sponsors and Collaborators
Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: Natalie B Collins, MD, PHD Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
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Responsible Party: Natalie B. Collins, Principal Investigator, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04239040    
Other Study ID Numbers: 19-680
First Posted: January 23, 2020    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: October 12, 2021
Last Verified: October 2021
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: Yes
Plan Description: The Dana-Farber / Harvard Cancer Center encourages and supports the responsible and ethical sharing of data from clinical trials. De-identified participant data from the final research dataset used in the published manuscript may only be shared under the terms of a Data Use Agreement. Requests may be directed to Sponsor Investigator or designee. The protocol and statistical analysis plan will be made available on Clinicaltrials.gov only as required by federal regulation or as a condition of awards and agreements supporting the research.
Supporting Materials: Study Protocol
Statistical Analysis Plan (SAP)
Informed Consent Form (ICF)
Time Frame: Data can be shared no earlier than 1 year following the date of publication
Access Criteria: DFCI - Contact the Belfer Office for Dana-Farber Innovations (BODFI) at innovation@dfci.harvard.edu

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: Yes
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Keywords provided by Natalie B. Collins, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute:
Neuroblastoma
Pediatric Solid Tumor
Immunotherapy
GVAX Vaccine
Nivolumab
Ipilimumab
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Neuroblastoma
Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive, Peripheral
Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive
Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial
Neuroectodermal Tumors
Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal
Neoplasms by Histologic Type
Neoplasms
Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial
Neoplasms, Nerve Tissue
Nivolumab
Ipilimumab
Vaccines
Immunologic Factors
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological
Antineoplastic Agents
Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action