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Postoperative Extended Venous Thromboprophylaxis in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (EXPAND)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Know the risks and potential benefits of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT03935451
Recruitment Status : Not yet recruiting
First Posted : May 2, 2019
Last Update Posted : February 24, 2021
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
McMaster University

Brief Summary:
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a relatively common disease that effects all age groups and carries significant morbidity and mortality. The initial treatment typically involves both short and long term medication, however when this is not enough to adequately control the disease, surgery is often required. The high morbidity and mortality rates are in part due to the increased rates of venous thromboembolism (VTE) such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE) which have been shown to develop more frequently in IBD patients compared to the general population. Undergoing abdominal surgery has also been shown to independently increase rates of DVT and PE and since the majority of patients with IBD will undergo surgery at least once in their lifetime, the relative increased risk of developing a VTE is very high. The majority of DVT and PE events in the postoperative IBD population will occur after discharge from hospital and therefore carries significant morbidity and mortality risk in a unmonitored setting. Several studies have demonstrated the benefits and safety of twice daily dosing of oral extended VTE prophylaxis agents in orthopedic and cancer postoperative patients following discharge from hospital. There have been no randomized studies which have evaluated the use of extended postoperative VTE prophylaxis in IBD patients. The purpose of this randomized placebo controlled pilot trial will be to evaluate the efficacy and safety of postoperative VTE prophylaxis in IBD patients following abdominal surgery. If this pilot trial demonstrates efficacy in reducing postoperative DVT and PE rates, safety and feasibility, clinicians will be armed with the knowledge to pursue a larger multicenter randomized trial with the intent of reducing overall morbidity and mortality in this high risk population.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
IBD Venous Thromboembolism Crohn Disease Ulcerative Colitis Pulmonary Embolism Colorectal Disorders Drug: Apixaban 2.5 milligram Drug: Placebo Oral Tablet Early Phase 1

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 60 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Triple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: A Randomized Controlled Trial on the Use of Postoperative Extended Venous Thromboprophylaxis in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Pilot Study
Estimated Study Start Date : April 1, 2021
Estimated Primary Completion Date : October 30, 2021
Estimated Study Completion Date : August 30, 2022

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

Drug Information available for: Apixaban

Arm Intervention/treatment
Placebo Comparator: Placebo
The placebo group will receive a similarly appearing full supply of a twice daily placebo oral tablet.
Drug: Placebo Oral Tablet
placebo oral tablet that resembles the experimental drug. To be taken with the same frequency and duration

Experimental: Experimental
The treatment arm will receive a full supply of twice daily 2.5 milligram (mg) dosing of apixaban beginning on the first day of hospital discharge.
Drug: Apixaban 2.5 milligram
2.5 milligram daily dosing of Apixaban beginning on the first day of hospital discharge for a total of 30 days

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Incidence of post operative venous thromboembolism events (DVT/PE) in in patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease [ Time Frame: 3 months post operatively ]
    The primary efficacy outcome will be a composite of symptomatic proximal DVTs of the upper and lower extremities, splanchnic VTE, nonfatal PE (segmental or greater artery), and death from PE and death from any cause within 3 months following hospital discharge.

  2. Incidence of bleeding while undergoing treatment with oral anticoagulant or placebo. [ Time Frame: 3 months post operatively ]
    The primary safety outcome will be bleeding reported during treatment, including major bleeding, clinically relevant non-major (CRNM) bleeding, minor bleeding, and the composite of major bleeding and CRNM bleeding.

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Incidence of surgical complications related to post operative anticoagulation [ Time Frame: 3 months post operatively ]
    The secondary outcome will include surgical complications related to anticoagulation (intra-abdominal bleeding, surgical site bleeding), and arterial thromboembolic events such as acute ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, and other VTE (upper extremity and splanchnic veins).

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes

Inclusion Criteria:

  • >18 years old
  • Having documented pathological diagnosis of either Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis.
  • Open or laparoscopic abdominal gastrointestinal surgery
  • Elective surgery
  • Surgery occurring at Hamilton Health Sciences or St. Joseph's Healthcare Hamilton
  • Negative urine beta-hCG for women of childbearing potential

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Contraindication to use of postoperative thromboprophylaxis (ie. Previous bleeding on anticoagulation)
  • Allergy to apixaban
  • History of VTE
  • Current clinically significant active bleeding, including GI bleeding
  • Hepatic disease associated with coagulopathy and clinically relevant bleeding risk
  • Severe renal impairment (eCrCl <30 ml/min), or undergoing dialysis
  • Lesions or conditions at increased risk of clinically significant bleeding (e.g. recent GI bleeding, recent ischemic or hemorrhagic cerebral infarction, active ulcerative GI disease, recent brain, spinal or ophthalmological surgery, bronchiectasis or history of pulmonary bleeding, thrombocytopenia or functional platelet defects, congenital or acquired coagulation disorder)
  • Receiving any of the following drugs:

    • Strong inhibitors of both CYP 3A4 and P-gp, such as azole-antimycotics (e.g. ketoconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, or posaconazole), and HIV protease inhibitors (e.g. ritonavir)
    • Strong inducers of both CYP 3A4 and P-gp (e.g. rifampicin, phenytoin, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, or St. John's Wort)
    • Drug products affecting hemostasis (e.g. NSAIDs, ASA or other antiplatelet agents [e.g. ASA, clopidogrel, prasugrel, ticagrelor], SSRIs, or SNRIs)
    • Any other anticoagulant, including unfractionated heparin, LMWH, heparin derivatives, or oral anticoagulants (e.g. warfarin, dabigatran, rivaroxaban)
  • Currently receiving therapy for any type of malignancy (e.g. colorectal, breast, lung)
  • History of colorectal cancer
  • Emergency surgery
  • Patients with an indication for anticoagulation before surgery (atrial fibrillation, etc.)
  • Enrolled in any other clinical trials or prospective studies where similar outcomes are measured
  • Pregnant (i.e. positive pregnancy test and/or self-reported) and/or breastfeeding
  • Women of childbearing potential unwilling/unable to participate in appropriate family planning during the treatment period

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT03935451

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Contact: Cagla Eskicioglu, MD MSc (905) 522-1155 ext 35921
Contact: Tyler McKechnie, MD (905) 522-1155 ext 35921

Sponsors and Collaborators
McMaster University
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Responsible Party: McMaster University Identifier: NCT03935451    
Other Study ID Numbers: 7043
First Posted: May 2, 2019    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: February 24, 2021
Last Verified: August 2020
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No
Plan Description: This study will not share any individual participant data with other researchers.

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Product Manufactured in and Exported from the U.S.: No
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Crohn Disease
Colitis, Ulcerative
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Pulmonary Embolism
Venous Thromboembolism
Gastrointestinal Diseases
Digestive System Diseases
Intestinal Diseases
Colonic Diseases
Embolism and Thrombosis
Vascular Diseases
Cardiovascular Diseases
Lung Diseases
Respiratory Tract Diseases
Factor Xa Inhibitors
Serine Proteinase Inhibitors
Protease Inhibitors
Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action