GRam Stain-guided Antibiotics ChoicE for Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (GRACE-VAP) Trial
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03506113|
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : April 23, 2018
Last Update Posted : September 21, 2022
Background: Optimising the use of antibiotic agents is a pressing challenge to overcoming the rapid emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant pathogens in intensive care units (ICUs). Although Gram staining may possibly provide immediate information for predicting pathogenic bacteria, Gram stain-guided initial antibiotic treatment is not well established in the ICU setting. The investigators planned the GRam stain-guided Antibiotics ChoicE for Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (GRACE-VAP) trial to investigate whether Gram staining can safely restrict the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), which is one of the most common hospital-acquired infections in ICUs.
Methods/Design: The GRACE-VAP trial is a multicenter, randomised, open-label parallel-group trial to assess the non-inferiority of Gram stain-guided initial antibiotic treatment to guidelines-based initial antibiotic treatment for the primary endpoint of clinical cure rate in patients with VAP. Secondary endpoints include the coverage rates of initial antibiotic therapies, the selected rates of anti-pseudomonal agents and anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) agents as initial antibiotic therapies, 28-day all-cause mortality, ICU-free days, ventilator-free days, and adverse events. Participants are randomly assigned to receive Gram stain-guided treatment or guidelines-based treatment at a ratio of 1:1. In the Gram stain group, results of Gram staining of endotracheal aspirate are used to guide the selection of antibiotics. In the guidelines group, the combination of an anti-pseudomonal agent and anti-MRSA agent are administered. A total sample size of 200 was estimated to provide a power of 80% with a 1-sided alpha level of 2.5% and a non-inferiority margin of 20%, considering 10% non-evaluable participants.
Discussion: The GRACE-VAP trial is expected reveal whether Gram staining can reduce the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics without impairing patient outcomes and thereby provide evidence for an antibiotics selection strategy in patients with VAP.
|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Ventilator Associated Pneumonia||Drug: Gram stain-guided antibiotic choice Drug: Guidelines-based antibiotics choice||Phase 4|
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Actual Enrollment :||206 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Parallel Assignment|
|Masking:||Single (Outcomes Assessor)|
|Official Title:||GRam Stain-guided Antibiotics ChoicE for Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (GRACE-VAP) Trial|
|Actual Study Start Date :||April 1, 2018|
|Actual Primary Completion Date :||June 28, 2020|
|Actual Study Completion Date :||June 28, 2020|
Active Comparator: Gram stain-guided therapy group
The results of Gram staining of endotracheal aspirate are used to guide the selection of antibiotics. The results of the Gram stains are categorised as Gram-positive cocci (GPC) chains, GPC clusters, Gram-positive bacilli (GPB), Gram-negative rods (GNR), or a combination of these. A non-pseudomonal beta-lactam antibiotic is selected when the Gram stain of the endotracheal aspirate shows only GPC chains and/or GPB. An anti-MRSA agent is selected when the Gram stain results show GPC clusters without GNR. An anti-pseudomonal agent is selected when the Gram stain results show GNR without GPC clusters. The combination of an anti-pseudomonal agent and an anti-MRSA agent is selected when the Gram stain results show both GPC clusters and GNR.
Drug: Gram stain-guided antibiotic choice
The results of Gram staining of endotracheal aspirate are used to guide the selection of antibiotics.
Active Comparator: Guidelines-based therapy group
Patients are administered the combination of an anti-pseudomonal agent and anti-MRSA agent according to the Infectious Disease Society of America and the American Thoracic Society (IDSA/ATS) guidelines because 47.7% of S. aureus isolates are MRSA in Japanese ICUs
Drug: Guidelines-based antibiotics choice
Patients are administered the combination of an anti-pseudomonal agent and anti-MRSA agent according to IDSA/ATS guidelines
- Clinical cure of VAP [ Time Frame: up to 22 days ]Cure is defined as completion of antibiotic therapy within 14 days, improvement or lack of progression of baseline radiographic findings at the end of therapy (EOT), and resolution of signs and symptoms of pneumonia at the follow-up/test of cure visit (FU/TOC) conducted 7 days after EOT. Failure is defined as administration of study medication for 15 days or more, progression of radiological signs of pneumonia at EOT, or relapsed pneumonia at FU/TOC.
- Select of anti-pseudomonal agents as initial antibiotic therapies [ Time Frame: on day 1 ]
- Select of anti-MRSA agents as initial antibiotic therapies [ Time Frame: on day 1 ]
- Coverage of initial antibiotic therapies [ Time Frame: on day 1 ]Therapies will be considered appropriate when all pathogens isolated with at least 1+ semi-quantitative growth from endotracheal aspirates are covered by the selected antibiotic agents.
- 28-day mortality [ Time Frame: up to 28 days ]
- ICU-free days [ Time Frame: up to 28 days ]
- Ventilator-free days [ Time Frame: up to 28 days ]
- Duration of antibiotic therapies [ Time Frame: up to 28 days ]
- Need of escalation or de-escalation of antibiotic therapies [ Time Frame: up to 28 days ]The investigators evaluate whether antibiotic agents are changed during the treatments of VAP.
- Adverse events related to antibiotics [ Time Frame: up to 7 days after the end of therapy ]renal impairment, thrombocytopenia, diarrhoea, Clostridium difficile infection, skin rash, and seizure
- Inflammation marker [ Time Frame: up to 14 days ]Laboratory marker of inflammation (CRP, PCT) on 2, 4, 6, 8, and 14 days
- Organ failure control [ Time Frame: up to 14 days ]The investigators evaluate Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score on 2, 4, 6, 8, and 14 days. The SOFA score is made of 6 variables, each representing an organ system ( respiratory, cardiovascular, hepatic, coagulation, renal and neurological systems). Each organ system is assigned a point value from 0 (normal) to 4 (high degree of dysfunction/failure). The total SOFA score is calculated by the sum of each 6 variables (range, 0-24).
- Renal function [ Time Frame: up to 14 days ]The investigators evaluate whether participants are performed a renal replacement therapy.
To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03506113
|Nagoya, Aichi, Japan|
|Sapporo City General Hospital|
|Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan|
|Tajima Emergency and Critical Care Medical Center|
|Toyooka, Hyogo, Japan, 668-8501|
|Hitachi General Hospital|
|Hitachi, Ibaraki, Japan|
|Ebina General Hospital|
|Ebina, Kanagawa, Japan|
|University of the Ryukyus Hospital|
|Nishihara, Okinawa, Japan|
|Kansai Medical University Hospital|
|Hirakata, Osaka, Japan|
|Kansai Medical University Medical Center|
|Moriguchi, Osaka, Japan|
|Nagasaki University Hospital|
|Osaka General Medical Center|
|Saga University Hospital|
|Wakayama Medical University Hospital|
|Principal Investigator:||Jumpei Yoshimura, MD||Osaka General Medical Center|
|Study Director:||Kazuma Yamakawa, MD, PhD||Osaka General Medical Center|
|Study Director:||Takeshi Morimoto, MD, PhD, MPH||Hyogo College of Medicine|