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Renal Anhydramnios Fetal Therapy (RAFT)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Know the risks and potential benefits of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT03101891
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : April 5, 2017
Last Update Posted : January 13, 2020
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Johns Hopkins University

Brief Summary:
Early pregnancy renal anhydramnios or EPRA is a condition where a pregnant woman does not have any amniotic fluid around her fetus because of a problem with the fetus's kidneys. This condition is thought to be fatal once the fetus is born because of inadequate lung growth. The Renal Anhydramnios Fetal Therapy (RAFT) Trial offers eligible pregnant women with a diagnosis of EPRA an experimental therapy of repeated or serial "amnioinfusions" of fluid into the womb. An amnioinfusion involves placing a small needle through the pregnant woman's skin into the womb next to the fetus. Warm sterile fluid with balanced electrolytes and antibiotics is then slowly infused into amniotic space inside the womb. The aim is to help the fetus's lungs grow enough so he or she can survive after birth. These amnioinfusions will be carried out by an expert in fetal interventions at a RAFT center. There is a significant risk of early rupture of membranes and early delivery in subjects who receive amnioinfusions, and any potential trial participants will be counseled about these risks before they decide whether to join the trial. Any eligible patients who, after counseling, elect to terminate the pregnancy will not be eligible to participate in the trial. All eligible patients who choose to join the RAFT trial will be able to choose their assignment into one of two arms of the study: (1) to receive serial amnioinfusions (2) to not receive amnioinfusions but receive monitoring for the remainder of the pregnancy at the RAFT center. Thus, assignment of patients to study arm will not be random, but will be decided by the participant. Fetuses who do survive after birth will require intensive medical management for kidney failure including placement of a dialysis catheter and dialysis therapy with the eventual need for a kidney transplant. Treatment for lung disease secondary to abnormal lung development may also be required. The study will follow babies and their families until non-survival or transplant.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Bilateral Renal Agenesis Oligohydramnios Anhydramnios Potter Syndrome Lung Hypoplasia Multicystic Dysplastic Kidney Multicystic Renal Dysplasia, Bilateral Lower Urinary Tract Obstructive Syndrome Fetal Renal Anomaly Procedure: Serial amnioinfusions with isotonic fluid Device: Spinal needle Drug: Isotonic fluid Not Applicable

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 100 participants
Allocation: Non-Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Intervention Model Description: All eligible patients will be offered participation in the study. Participants can elect for invasive therapy with amnioinfusions or expectant management.
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Renal Anhydramnios Fetal Therapy (RAFT) Trial
Actual Study Start Date : March 18, 2017
Estimated Primary Completion Date : March 18, 2020
Estimated Study Completion Date : March 18, 2026

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Serial amnioinfusions with isotonic fluid
Patients will undergo amnioinfusions with isotonic fluid every 1-2 weeks. A spinal needle will be used to perform the infusion. The latest infusions will begin is 26 weeks gestation. Standard postnatal care will occur at a RAFT center.
Procedure: Serial amnioinfusions with isotonic fluid
Amnioinfusions will be performed by an expert in fetal procedures with a 20 or 22 gauge needle using sterile technique and ultrasound guidance. Local anesthetic will be employed. The fluid will consist of warmed isotonic fluid. Infusions may take up to 1 hour.
Other Name: Renal Anhydramnios Fetal Therapy (RAFT)

Device: Spinal needle
A 20 or 22 gauge spinal needle will be used with sterile technique to access the uterus under ultrasound guidance and to infuse isotonic fluid.
Other Name: Obstetrics and gynecology needle

Drug: Isotonic fluid
Isotonic fluids, including normal saline or lactated ringers solution, will be infused into the uterus through a spinal needle under ultrasound guidance using sterile technique. This fluid will act as replacement amniotic fluid.
Other Names:
  • Normal saline
  • Lactated ringers solution

No Intervention: Expectant
Patients will be observed serially by ultrasound, fetal echocardiogram and MRI. Standard postnatal care will occur at a RAFT center.

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Survival to successful dialysis [ Time Frame: Birth to either successful dialysis or nonsurvival. ]
    To evaluate the efficacy of serial saline amnioinfusions to prevent lethal pulmonary hypoplasia in patients with EPRA. Survival or nonsurvival to the endpoint of successful dialysis defined as 15 continuous days of dialysis catheter usage will be measured.

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Maternal safety: the rate of maternal adverse events [ Time Frame: These outcomes will be measured at every prenatal visit, after every prenatal procedure, at delivery and 30 days after delivery. ]
    To evaluate the safety of serial amnioinfusions in patients with EPRA. Safety of the infusions will be determined by the rate of maternal adverse events (if any) with infusion. superficial wound infection requiring antibiotics, bleed requiring transfusion, and death.

  2. Number of serial amnioinfusions before preterm premature rupture of membranes or preterm delivery. [ Time Frame: Pregnancy ]
    To evaluate the feasibility of serial amnioinfusions without rupture of membranes or preterm birth for EPRA pregnancies.

  3. Survival to transplant [ Time Frame: Birth to either successful renal transplant (usually around 2 years of life) or nonsurvival ]
    To determine the proportion of patients treated with RAFT who successfully receive renal transplant.

  4. Quality of life using Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 (PedsQL TM) survey [ Time Frame: 1 and 2 years of life and then 1, 2 3 and 4 years after transplant ]
    To determine the quality of life of patients that undergo RAFT. The parent proxy score will be used until the child is 5 years of age.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 60 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Female
Gender Based Eligibility:   Yes
Gender Eligibility Description:   Pregnant women are the focus of this study
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Confirmed anhydramnios before 22 weeks GA for patients with FRF or confirmed diagnosis of CoBRA
  • Eligible for first amnioinfusion before 26 weeks GA
  • Confirmation that the expectant mother does not wish to undergo termination of the pregnancy
  • Age greater than 18 years of age for expectant mothers
  • Willingness to be followed and deliver at a RAFT center
  • Willingness for postnatal care to be performed at a RAFT center until discharge Completed consults with Pediatric Nephrology, Neonatology, Transplant Surgery, Pediatric surgery, Maternal-Fetal Medicine Specialist, and Licensed Clinical Social Worker.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Cervix less than 2.5 cm in length
  • Abnormal Karyotype or Microarray
  • Other significant congenital anomalies in the fetus
  • Evidence of chorioamnionitis or abruptio placentae
  • Evidence of rupture of membranes or chorioamniotic separation
  • Evidence of preterm labor
  • Multiple gestation
  • Severe maternal medical condition in pregnancy.
  • Maternal depression as assessed by a Beck Depression Inventory score equal to or greater than 17 that is refractory to treatment
  • Technical limitations precluding amnioinfusion

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT03101891

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Contact: Eric B Jelin, MD 4432873384
Contact: Jena Miller, MD 844-JHFETAL

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United States, California
Stanford University Recruiting
Palo Alto, California, United States, 94304
Contact: Yair Blumenfeld, MD    650-724-2221   
Contact: Stephanie Neves, RN    650-724-2221   
United States, Maryland
Johns Hopkins Hospital Recruiting
Baltimore, Maryland, United States, 21287
Contact: Eric B Jelin, MD         
Sponsors and Collaborators
Johns Hopkins University
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Principal Investigator: Eric B Jelin, MD Johns Hopkins University

Additional Information:
Publications of Results:
Other Publications:
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Responsible Party: Johns Hopkins University Identifier: NCT03101891    
Other Study ID Numbers: IRB00164021
First Posted: April 5, 2017    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: January 13, 2020
Last Verified: January 2020
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Keywords provided by Johns Hopkins University:
Fetal therapy
Bilateral Renal Agenesis
Fetal Renal Failure
Lower Urinary Tract Obstruction (LUTO)
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Multicystic Dysplastic Kidney
Pathologic Processes
Congenital Abnormalities
Pregnancy Complications
Kidney Diseases
Urologic Diseases
Urogenital Abnormalities
Kidney Diseases, Cystic