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Contribution of Hyperinsulinemia vs. Hyperglycemia to Insulin Resistance in Type 1 Diabetes and Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young, Type 2 (MODY2)

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02971202
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : November 22, 2016
Results First Posted : August 1, 2019
Last Update Posted : August 1, 2019
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Justin Gregory, Vanderbilt University

Brief Summary:

The purpose of this study is to determine the key factors influencing insulin sensitivity in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and maturity onset diabetes of the young, type 2 (MODY2).

Our study tests the hypothesis that decreased insulin sensitivity is primarily driven by chronically elevated insulin levels in the blood rather than chronic elevations in blood sugar.


Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young, Type 2 MODY2 Insulin Resistance Drug: Hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp Drug: 20% dextrose Phase 1

Detailed Description:

This research will determine whether insulin resistance (IR) in T1DM is predominantly an effect of chronic hyperglycemia, as is commonly accepted, or a consequence of iatrogenic hyperinsulinemia in the peripheral circulation, as alternatively hypothesized. IR is a consistent but under-recognized finding in T1DM. Despite its independent contribution to micro- and macrovascular disease, its underlying cause has not been established nor have strategies to mitigate it been developed. This research will also characterize IR in maturity onset diabetes of the young, type 2 (MODY2), a population for whom IR has been inadequately studied to date.

Insulin therapy in T1DM attempts to achieve euglycemia but does so in an "unphysiologic" way, by delivering insulin into the subcutaneous tissue as compared to physiologic delivery directly into the hepatic portal circulation. Although life-saving, peripheral insulin delivery in T1DM results in a loss of the normal insulin distribution; the physiologic state maintains insulin at 3-fold higher concentrations in the portal circulation compared with the peripheral circulation. IR in T1DM could therefore occur in response to peripheral hyperinsulinemia, a mechanism that would protect against hypoglycemia and ensure adequate glucose delivery to the central nervous system.

MODY2 is a condition that results a mutation in the gene encoding glucokinase (GCK), which in turn causes a defect in β-cell sensitivity to glucose due to reduced glucose phosphorylation. This effectively raises the "set point" for insulin secretion in response to increased glycemia. Because MODY2 patients retain pancreatic insulin secretion, they usually require no insulin therapy and have a normal insulin distribution between the portal and peripheral circulations.

We therefore hypothesize that IR in T1DM 1) is a homeostatic response to increased peripheral insulin concentrations resulting from peripheral insulin delivery and not significantly attributable to hyperglycemia and 2) results primarily from peripheral tissue IR (especially muscle) and not primarily from hepatic IR. Further, we anticipate that patients with MODY2, a population that has hyperglycemia without hyperinsulinemia, will have insulin sensitivity similar to that of otherwise healthy, nondiabetic individuals.

To test this hypothesis, the hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp will be used to assess IR in a cross-sectional study of 3 groups of subjects:

  1. non-diabetic control subjects,
  2. patients with well controlled T1DM, and
  3. patients with MODY2

Key metabolic differences between these 3 groups will enable us to parse out the relative contributions of peripheral hyperinsulinemia vs. hyperglycemia to IR in T1DM and MODY2. Further, the proposed research will provide information on whether novel therapeutic strategies to restore the normal portal to peripheral insulin distribution can normalize insulin sensitivity (e.g. hepatopreferential insulin analogs, intraperitoneal insulin delivery).


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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 33 participants
Allocation: Non-Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Basic Science
Official Title: A Novel Cross-sectional Analysis of Insulin Sensitivity Among Adolescents and Young Adults With Type 1 Diabetes, MODY2, and Normal Controls: the Contribution of Hyperinsulinemia vs. Hyperglycemia to Insulin Resistance
Study Start Date : December 2016
Actual Primary Completion Date : February 2019
Actual Study Completion Date : February 2019


Arm Intervention/treatment
Hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp: T1DM

Participants will undergo an 8-hour hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp to quantify insulin sensitivity at whole-body and tissue-specific levels. The following hormones will be infused in the study:

  • insulin (12 milliunit (mU)/m^2/min [3x basal] for 150 minutes, then 40 mU/m^2/min [10x basal] for 180 minutes)
  • glucagon (0.65 ng/kg/min [1x basal] for 330 minutes)
  • somatostatin (60 ng/kg/min) These infusions will maintain a basal glucagon level and an increased insulin level in the blood that will be equal between all 3 cohorts.

A variable infusion of 20% dextrose will be used to maintain plasma glucose within the euglycemic range throughout the hyperinsulinemic portion of the clamp. 6,6-H2 glucose will be infused at a low rate (0.033-0.22 µmol/kg/min) to determine glucose flux during the study.

Drug: Hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp

Participants will undergo an 8-hour hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp to quantify insulin sensitivity at whole-body and tissue-specific levels. The following hormones will be infused in the study:

  • insulin (12 mU/m^2/min [3x basal] for 150 minutes, then 40 mU/m^2/min [10x basal] for 180 minutes)
  • glucagon (0.65 ng/kg/min [1x basal] for 330 minutes)
  • somatostatin (60 ng/kg/min) These infusions will maintain a basal glucagon level and an increased insulin level in the blood that will be equal between all 3 cohorts.
Other Names:
  • glucose clamp
  • pancreatic clamp

Drug: 20% dextrose
A variable infusion of 20% dextrose will be used to maintain plasma glucose within the euglycemic range throughout the hyperinsulinemic portion of the clamp. 6,6-H2 glucose will be infused at a low rate (0.033-0.22 µmol/kg/min) to determine glucose flux during the study.

Hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp:MODY2

Participants will undergo an 8-hour hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp to quantify insulin sensitivity at whole-body and tissue-specific levels. The following hormones will be infused in the study:

  • insulin (12 mU/m^2/min [3x basal] for 150 minutes, then 40 mU/m^2/min [10x basal] for 180 minutes)
  • glucagon (0.65 ng/kg/min [1x basal] for 330 minutes)
  • somatostatin (60 ng/kg/min) These infusions will maintain a basal glucagon level and an increased insulin level in the blood that will be equal between all 3 cohorts.

A variable infusion of 20% dextrose will be used to maintain plasma glucose within the euglycemic range throughout the hyperinsulinemic portion of the clamp. 6,6-H2 glucose will be infused at a low rate (0.033-0.22 µmol/kg/min) to determine glucose flux during the study.

Drug: Hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp

Participants will undergo an 8-hour hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp to quantify insulin sensitivity at whole-body and tissue-specific levels. The following hormones will be infused in the study:

  • insulin (12 mU/m^2/min [3x basal] for 150 minutes, then 40 mU/m^2/min [10x basal] for 180 minutes)
  • glucagon (0.65 ng/kg/min [1x basal] for 330 minutes)
  • somatostatin (60 ng/kg/min) These infusions will maintain a basal glucagon level and an increased insulin level in the blood that will be equal between all 3 cohorts.
Other Names:
  • glucose clamp
  • pancreatic clamp

Drug: 20% dextrose
A variable infusion of 20% dextrose will be used to maintain plasma glucose within the euglycemic range throughout the hyperinsulinemic portion of the clamp. 6,6-H2 glucose will be infused at a low rate (0.033-0.22 µmol/kg/min) to determine glucose flux during the study.

Hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp:Control

Participants will undergo an 8-hour hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp to quantify insulin sensitivity at whole-body and tissue-specific levels. The following hormones will be infused in the study:

  • insulin (12 mU/m^2/min [3x basal] for 150 minutes, then 40 mU/m^2/min [10x basal] for 180 minutes)
  • glucagon (0.65 ng/kg/min [1x basal] for 330 minutes)
  • somatostatin (60 ng/kg/min) These infusions will maintain a basal glucagon level and an increased insulin level in the blood that will be equal between all 3 cohorts.

A variable infusion of 20% dextrose will be used to maintain plasma glucose within the euglycemic range throughout the hyperinsulinemic portion of the clamp. 6,6-H2 glucose will be infused at a low rate (0.033-0.22 µmol/kg/min) to determine glucose flux during the study.

Drug: Hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp

Participants will undergo an 8-hour hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp to quantify insulin sensitivity at whole-body and tissue-specific levels. The following hormones will be infused in the study:

  • insulin (12 mU/m^2/min [3x basal] for 150 minutes, then 40 mU/m^2/min [10x basal] for 180 minutes)
  • glucagon (0.65 ng/kg/min [1x basal] for 330 minutes)
  • somatostatin (60 ng/kg/min) These infusions will maintain a basal glucagon level and an increased insulin level in the blood that will be equal between all 3 cohorts.
Other Names:
  • glucose clamp
  • pancreatic clamp

Drug: 20% dextrose
A variable infusion of 20% dextrose will be used to maintain plasma glucose within the euglycemic range throughout the hyperinsulinemic portion of the clamp. 6,6-H2 glucose will be infused at a low rate (0.033-0.22 µmol/kg/min) to determine glucose flux during the study.




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Whole-body Glucose Utilization (Rd) [ Time Frame: End of clamp study (the study will last 8 hours) ]
    The primary outcome is the degree to which Rd (determined using isotopic glucose tracer techniques) during maximal insulin stimulation differs between cohorts.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Hepatic Insulin Sensitivity [ Time Frame: 4 1/2 hours into clamp study ]
    Glucose production (Ra) will be determined using stable isotopic tracer techniques. The extent to which Ra is suppressed at the end of 4 1/2 hours (when glucose Ra by liver has been submaximally suppressed) compared to basal (ΔRa) is directly proportional to hepatic insulin sensitivity.

  2. Adipose Tissue Insulin Sensitivity [ Time Frame: 4 1/2 hours into clamp study ]
    Insulin sensitivity at fat is directly proportional to insulin's ability to suppress lipolysis. Thus, we will determine the extent to which submaximal insulin stimulation (4 1/2 hours into the study) suppresses glycerol and non-esterified free fatty acids (NEFAs) compared to baseline. The extent to which these two metabolites are suppressed is directly proportional to insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue. Here the suppression of NEFA is taken as the secondary outcome parameter.



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Ages Eligible for Study:   13 Years to 51 Years   (Child, Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

Inclusion criteria for all subjects:

- BMI 19-28 kg/m^2

Additional inclusion criteria for T1DM subjects:

  • Age 13-51
  • T1DM duration 1-20 years
  • HbA1c 5.9-8.0%

Additional inclusion criteria for MODY2 subjects:

  • age 13-51
  • positive GCK genetic sequencing
  • HbA1c 5.9-8.0%

Additional inclusion criteria for control subjects:

  • age 18-5.1
  • HbA1c < 5.5%

Exclusion Criteria:

Exclusion criteria for all subjects:

  • severe hypoglycemia (>= 1 episode in the past 3 months or diagnosis of hypoglycemia unawareness)
  • diabetes comorbidities (>= 1 trip to emergency department for poor glucose control in the past 6 months, New York Heart Association Class II-IV cardiac functional status, systolic blood pressure > 140 and diastolic blood pressure > 100 mmHg, fasting triglycerides > 400 mg/dL, liver transaminases > 2 times the upper limit of normal, renal transplantation or serum creatinine > 1.5 mg/dL)
  • confounding medications (any systemic glucocorticoid, any antipsychotic, atenolol, metoprolol, propranolol, niacin, any thiazide diuretic, any oral contraceptive pill with > 35 mcg ethinyl estradiol, growth hormone, any immunosuppressant, any anti-hypertensive, any-antilipidemic)
  • pregnancy
  • Tanner stage < 5

Additional exclusion criteria for T1DM subjects

  • any diabetes medication except insulin
  • fasting c-peptide > 0.7 ng/mL

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02971202


Locations
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United States, Tennessee
Vanderbilt University Medical Center
Nashville, Tennessee, United States, 37232
Sponsors and Collaborators
Vanderbilt University
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: Justin M Gregory, MD Vanderbilt University School of Medicine
  Study Documents (Full-Text)

Documents provided by Justin Gregory, Vanderbilt University:
Informed Consent Form  [PDF] September 20, 2018


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Responsible Party: Justin Gregory, Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02971202     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 161504
First Posted: November 22, 2016    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: August 1, 2019
Last Update Posted: August 1, 2019
Last Verified: July 2019
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: Yes
Plan Description: The datasets generated during and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request. No applicable resources were generated or analyzed during the current study.
Supporting Materials: Study Protocol
Statistical Analysis Plan (SAP)
Informed Consent Form (ICF)
Clinical Study Report (CSR)

Keywords provided by Justin Gregory, Vanderbilt University:
o-glcnacylation
hexosamine

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1
Insulin Resistance
Hyperglycemia
Hyperinsulinism
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
Glucose Metabolism Disorders
Metabolic Diseases
Endocrine System Diseases
Autoimmune Diseases
Immune System Diseases
Insulin
Insulin, Globin Zinc
Benzocaine
Glucagon
Hormones
Somatostatin
Hypoglycemic Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists
Anesthetics, Local
Anesthetics
Central Nervous System Depressants
Sensory System Agents
Peripheral Nervous System Agents
Gastrointestinal Agents