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Experimental Falciparum Transmission to Anopheles (EFITA)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT02431637
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : May 1, 2015
Results First Posted : May 26, 2020
Last Update Posted : May 26, 2020
Q-Pharm Pty Limited
Clinical Network Services (CNS) Pty Ltd
Sullivan Nicolaides Pathology
QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute
Army Malaria Institute, Australia
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Medicines for Malaria Venture

Brief Summary:
This is a single-centre, open-label study using P. falciparum-induced blood stage malaria (IBSM) infection to assess the infectivity of sexual life cycle stages of the malaria parasite (gametocytes) to mosquito vectors. Previous clinical studies have shown that treatment of participants with the antimalarial drug piperaquine, in addition to effectively clearing asexual (pathogenic) stages of the malaria life cycle, induces the production of gametocytes in the blood. The propensity of piperaquine to induce gametocytemia will be employed in this study to assess gametocyte infectivity to Anopheles mosquitoes. For this purpose, experimental mosquito feeding directly on participants and artificial membrane mosquito feeding will be performed. The study will be conducted in 3 cohorts (n=2 per cohort). Subsequent cohorts will not commence until at least after day 28 of the previous cohort and review by Safety Review Team. This interval will also allow cohorting of experimental infection of mosquitoes to optimise logistics and enable iterative improvements in the system if applicable.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Malaria Biological: Administration of the malaria inoculum Drug: Piperaquine Phosphate 480 mg Phase 1

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 6 participants
Allocation: N/A
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Blood Stage Challenge Study to Asses Mosquito Transmissibility in Participants Inoculated With Plasmodium Falciparum
Actual Study Start Date : April 2015
Actual Primary Completion Date : September 2016
Actual Study Completion Date : September 2016

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Piperaquine Phosphate after infected blood malaria challenge
Volunteers will receive a dose of 480 mg piperaquine phosphate (PQP) approx. 7 days after a challenge with P. falciparum infected red blood cells. The effects of PQP on gametocyte carriage (assessed by PCR) and infectivity to mosquitos after direct and indirect feeding on blood from volunteers will be assessed.
Biological: Administration of the malaria inoculum
Each participant in the cohort will be inoculated on Day 0 with ~2,800 viable parasites of Plasmodium falciparum-infected human erythrocytes (BSPC) administered intravenously. The threshold for commencement of treatment will be when PCR quantification of all participants is ≥ 5,000 parasites/mL.

Drug: Piperaquine Phosphate 480 mg
When PCR quantification of all participants is ≥ 5,000 parasites/mL, participants will receive a single dose of 480 mg Piperaquine Phosphate

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Successful Infection of Vector Mosquitoes Following Both Direct and Indirect Feeding on the Blood of Infected Participants [ Time Frame: 7-10 days after blood feeding ]
    Seven to ten days after blood feeding, mosquitoes will be dissected to check for oocysts in midgut preparations. For permanent preparations, oocysts will be stained with 0.1% mercurochrome in PBS for 5 to 60 mins then fixed in 1%glutaraldehyde or formaldehyde. Oocysts will be counted per mosquito dissected and recorded. Relationship between parasitemia, gametocytemia and mosquito infection (both oocyst prevalence and intensity) will be determined using generalized-linear mixed models. The number of mosquitoes dying prior to dissection will be recorded.

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Safety: Number of AEs [ Time Frame: Blood stage Plasmodium falciparum Challenge Inoculum up to Day 31 ]
    Adverse events incidence

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 55 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes

Inclusion Criteria:


  • Adult (male and females) participants between 18 and 55 years of age, inclusive who do not live alone (from Day 0 until at least the end of the anti-malarial drug treatment) and be contactable and available for the duration of the trial (maximum of 6 weeks).
  • Body weight, minimum 50.0 kg, body mass index between 18.0 and 32.0 kg/m

Health status:

  • Certified as healthy by a comprehensive clinical assessment (detailed medical history and complete physical examination).
  • Normal vital signs after 10 minutes resting in supine position:
  • 90mmHg < systolic blood pressure (SBP) <140 mmHg,
  • 50 mmHg < diastolic blood pressure (DBP) <90 mmHg,
  • 40 bpm< heart rate (HR) <100 bpm.
  • Normal standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) after 5 minutes resting in supine position, QTcF=450 ms average with absence of second or third degree atrioventricular block or abnormal T wave morphology.
  • Laboratory parameters within the normal range, unless the Investigator considers an abnormality to be clinically irrelevant for healthy participants enrolled in this clinical investigation. More specifically for serum creatinine, hepatic transaminase enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase), and total bilirubin (unless the Participant has documented Gilbert syndrome) should not exceed the upper laboratory norm and haemoglobin must be equal or higher than the lower limit of the normal range, - - As the safety of Piperaquine on foetal development is unknown it is important that any participants involved in this study do not get pregnant or get their female partners pregnant.


- Having given written informed consent prior to undertaking any study-related procedure.

Exclusion Criteria:

Medical history and clinical status:

  • Any history of malaria or participation to a previous malaria challenge study
  • Must not have travelled to or lived (>2 weeks) in a malaria-endemic country during the past 12 months or planned travel to a malaria-endemic country during the course of the study.
  • Known severe reaction to mosquito bites other than local itching and redness
  • Has evidence of increased cardiovascular disease risk (defined as >10%, 5 year risk) as determined by the method of Gaziano et al. (1). Risk factors include sex, age, systolic blood pressure (mm/Hg), smoking status, body mass index (BMI, kg/m) and reported diabetes status.
  • History of splenectomy.
  • Presence or history of drug hypersensitivity, or allergic disease diagnosed and treated by a physician or history of a severe allergic reaction, anaphylaxis or convulsions following any vaccination or infusion.
  • Presence of current or suspected serious chronic diseases such as cardiac or autoimmune disease (HIV or other immunodeficiencies), insulin-dependent and NIDDM diabetes (excluding glucose intolerance if E04 is met ), progressive neurological disease, severe malnutrition, acute or progressive hepatic disease, acute or progressive renal disease, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, epilepsy or obsessive compulsive disorder, skin carcinoma excluding non-spreadable skin cancers such as basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma
  • Participants with history of schizophrenia, bi-polar disease, or other severe (disabling) chronic psychiatric diagnosis including depression or receiving psychiatric drugs or who has been hospitalized within the past 5 years prior to enrollment for psychiatric illness, history of suicide attempt or confinement for danger to self or others.
  • Frequent headaches and/or migraine, recurrent nausea, and/or vomiting (more than twice a month).
  • Presence of acute infectious disease or fever (e.g., sub-lingual temperature = 38.5°C) within the five days prior to inoculation with malaria parasites.
  • Evidence of acute illness within the four weeks before trial prior to screening that the Investigator deems may compromise subject safety.
  • Significant intercurrent disease of any type, in particular liver, renal, cardiac, pulmonary, neurologic, rheumatologic, or autoimmune disease by history, physical examination, and/or laboratory studies including urinalysis.
  • Participant has a clinically significant disease or any condition or disease that might affect drug absorption, distribution or excretion, e.g. gastrectomy, diarrhoea.
  • Participation in any investigational product study within the 12 weeks preceding the study.
  • Blood donation, any volume, within 1 month before inclusion or participation in any research study involving to be desired blood sampling (more than 450 mL/ unit of blood), or blood donation to Red Cross (or other) blood bank during the 8 weeks preceding the reference drug dose in the study.
  • Participant unwilling to defer blood donations for 6 months.
  • Medical requirement for intravenous immunoglobulin or blood transfusions.
  • Participant who has ever received a blood transfusion.
  • Symptomatic postural hypotension at screening, irrespective of the decrease in blood pressure, or asymptomatic postural hypotension defined as a decrease in systolic blood pressure =20 mmHg within 2-3 minutes when changing from supine to standing position.
  • History or presence of alcohol abuse (alcohol consumption more than 40 g per day, 3 standard drinks per day) or drug habituation, or any prior intravenous usage of an illicit substance.
  • Smoking more than 5 cigarettes or equivalent per day and unable to stop smoking for the duration of the study.
  • Ingestion of any poppy seeds within the 24 hours prior to the screening blood test (participants will
  • be advised by phone not to consume any poppy seeds in this time period).

Interfering substance:

  • Any medication (including St John's Wort) within 14 days before inclusion or within 5 times the
  • elimination half-life (whichever is longer) of the medication,
  • Any vaccination within the last 28 days.
  • Any corticosteroids, anti-inflammatory drugs, immunomodulators or anticoagulants. Any
  • participant currently receiving or having previously received immunosuppressive therapy,
  • including systemic steroids including adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) or inhaled steroids in dosages which are associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression such as 1mg/kg/day of prednisone or its equivalent or chronic use of inhaled high potency corticosteroids (budesonide 800 µg per day or fluticasone 750 µg).
  • Any recent or current systemic therapy with an antibiotic or drug with potential anti-malarial activity (chloroquine, piperaquine, benzodiazepine, flunarizine, fluoxetine, tetracycline, azithromycin, clindamycin, hydroxychloroquine, etc.).

General conditions:

  • Any participant who, in the judgment of the Investigator, is likely to be non compliant during the study, or unable to cooperate because of a language problem or poor mental development.
  • Any participant in the exclusion period of a previous study according to applicable regulations.
  • Any participant who lives alone (from Day 0 until at least the end of the anti-malarial drug treatment).
  • Any participant who cannot be contacted in case of emergency for the duration of the trial and up to 2 weeks following end of study visit.
  • Any participant who is the Investigator or any sub-investigator, research assistant, pharmacist, study coordinator, or other staff thereof, directly involved in conducting the study.
  • Any participant without a good peripheral venous access.

Biological status:

  • Positive result on any of the following tests: hepatitis B surface (HBs Ag) antigen, antihepatitis B core antibodies (anti-HBc Ab), anti-hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) antibodies, anti-human-immunodeficiency virus 1 and 2 antibodies (anti-HIV1 and anti HIV2 Ab),
  • Participant is found to be G6PD deficient
  • Any drug listed in Table 2 in the urine drug screen unless there is an explanation acceptable to the medical investigator (e.g., the participant has stated in advance that they consumed a prescription or OTC product which contained the detected drug) and/or the Participant has a negative urine drug screen on retest by the pathology laboratory.
  • Positive alcohol - breath test.

Specific to the study:

  • Cardiac/QT risk:

    • A history of clinically significant ECG abnormalities
    • Known pre-existing prolongation of the QTc- interval considered clinically significant
    • Family history of sudden death or of congenital prolongation of the QTc interval or known congenital prolongation of the QTc-interval or any clinical condition known to prolong the QTcinterval. History of symptomatic cardiac arrhythmias or with clinically relevant bradycardia.
    • Electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities in the standard 12-lead ECG (at screening) which in the opinion of the Investigator is clinically relevant or will interfere with the ECG analysis.
  • Known hypersensitivity to piperaquine or any of its excipients or 4-aminoquinolines, artemether or other artemisinin derivatives, lumefantrine, or other arylaminoalcohols.
  • Unwillingness to abstain from consumption of quinine containing foods/beverages such as tonic water, lemon bitter, from inoculation (Day 0) to the end of the malaria treatment.
  • Any history or presence of lactose intolerance.

On dosing days:

  • Ingestion of any other drug, in the two weeks prior to dosing or during the blood sampling period that, in the opinion of the Medical Investigator, could compromise the study, e.g., through metabolic interactions, or analytical interference. However the Medical Investigator may permit the use of paracetamol for the treatment of headache or other pain. If drug therapy other than paracetamol or drug specified in the protocol, is required during the study periods, a decision to continue or discontinue the participant's participation will be made by the Medical Investigator, based on the nature of the medication and the time the medication was taken.
  • Failure to conform to the requirements of the protocol.
  • Detection of any drug listed in this protocol in the urine drug screen unless there is an explanation acceptable to the medical investigator (e.g., the participant has stated in advance that they consumed a prescription or OTC product which contained the detected drug).
  • Vital signs outside the reference range and clinically significant.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT02431637

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Australia, Queensland
Q-Pharm Clinics
Herston, Queensland, Australia, 4006
Sponsors and Collaborators
Medicines for Malaria Venture
Q-Pharm Pty Limited
Clinical Network Services (CNS) Pty Ltd
Sullivan Nicolaides Pathology
QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute
Army Malaria Institute, Australia
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Principal Investigator: James McCarthy, Prof QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute
Publications automatically indexed to this study by Identifier (NCT Number):
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Responsible Party: Medicines for Malaria Venture Identifier: NCT02431637    
Other Study ID Numbers: QP14C21
First Posted: May 1, 2015    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: May 26, 2020
Last Update Posted: May 26, 2020
Last Verified: May 2020
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No
Keywords provided by Medicines for Malaria Venture:
Induced blood stage malaria
Standard membrane feeding assay
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Protozoan Infections
Parasitic Diseases
Antiprotozoal Agents
Antiparasitic Agents
Anti-Infective Agents