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A Study to Evaluate the Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of Fixed Doses of Intranasal Esketamine Plus an Oral Antidepressant in Adult Participants With Treatment-resistant Depression (TRANSFORM-1)

This study is currently recruiting participants. (see Contacts and Locations)
Verified March 2017 by Janssen Research & Development, LLC
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Janssen Research & Development, LLC
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT02417064
First received: April 10, 2015
Last updated: March 2, 2017
Last verified: March 2017
  Purpose
The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy and safety of switching treatment-resistant depression (TRD) participants from a prior antidepressant treatment (to which they have not responded) to either intranasal esketamine plus a new oral antidepressant or switching to a new oral antidepressant plus intranasal placebo.

Condition Intervention Phase
Treatment-resistant Depression
Drug: Esketamine
Drug: Placebo
Drug: Duloxetine (Oral Antidepressant)
Drug: Escitalopram (Oral antidepressant)
Drug: Sertraline (Oral Antidepressant)
Drug: Venlafaxine Extended Release (XR) (Oral Antidepressant)
Phase 3

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Participant, Investigator
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Randomized, Double-blind, Multicenter, Active-controlled Study to Evaluate the Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of Fixed Doses of Intranasal Esketamine Plus an Oral Antidepressant in Adult Subjects With Treatment-resistant Depression

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by Janssen Research & Development, LLC:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Change From Baseline in Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) Total Score at End of Double-blind Induction Phase [ Time Frame: Baseline and End of Double-blind Induction Phase (Week 4) ]
    The MADRS is a clinician-rated scale designed to measure depression severity and detects changes due to antidepressant treatment. The scale consists of 10 items, each of which is scored from 0 (item not present or normal) to 6 (severe or continuous presence of the symptoms), for a total possible score of 60. Higher scores represent a more severe condition. The MADRS evaluates apparent sadness, reported sadness, inner tension, sleep, appetite, concentration, lassitude, inability to feel (interest level), pessimistic thoughts, and suicidal thoughts.


Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Change From Baseline in Subject-reported Depressive Symptoms Using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) Total Score at End of Double-blind Induction Phase [ Time Frame: Baseline and End of Double-blind Induction Phase (Week 4) ]
    The PHQ-9 is a 9-item scale used to assess depressive symptoms. Each item is rated on a 4-point scale (0=not at all, 1=several days, 2=more than half the days, and 3=nearly every day). The responses for each item are summed to provide a total score (range of 0 to 27) with higher scores indicating greater severity of depressive symptoms.

  • Onset of Clinical Response That Continued Through the End of the 4-week Double-blind Induction Phase [ Time Frame: Day 2 through the End of Double-Blind Induction Phase (Week 4) ]
    Onset of clinical response is defined as greater than or equal to (>=) 50 percent (%) improvement in MADRS total score by the day after taking the first dose [i.e, Day 2] of doubleblind intranasal medication, that is sustained through the end of the 4- week double-blind induction phase.

  • Change From Baseline in Subject-reported Functioning and Associated Disability as Assessed by the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) Total Score at End of Double-blind Induction Phase [ Time Frame: Baseline and End of Double-blind Induction Phase (Week 4) ]
    The SDS is a subject-reported outcome measure and is a 5-item questionnaire which has been widely used and accepted for assessment of functional impairment and associated disability. The first three items assess disruption of (1) work/school, (2) social life, and (3) family life/home responsibilities using a 0-10 rating scale. The score for the first three items are summed to create a total score of 0-30 where a higher score indicates greater impairment.

  • Number of Participants with Adverse Events (AEs) and Serious AEs [ Time Frame: Screening up to End of Follow-up Phase (approximately up to 32 - 35 weeks) ]
    An adverse event (AE) is any untoward medical occurrence in a participant who received study drug without regard to possibility of causal relationship. A serious adverse event (SAE) is an AE resulting in any of the following outcomes or deemed significant for any other reason: death; initial or prolonged inpatient hospitalization; life-threatening experience (immediate risk of dying); persistent or significant disability/incapacity; congenital anomaly.

  • Change From Baseline in Clinical Global Impression - Severity (CGI-S) Score at End of Double-blind Induction Phase [ Time Frame: Baseline and End of Double-blind Induction Phase (Week 4) ]
    The CGI-S evaluates the severity of psychopathology on a scale of 0 to 7. Considering total clinical experience, a participant is assessed on severity of mental illness at the time of rating according to: 0=not assessed; 1=normal (not at all ill); 2=borderline mentally ill; 3=mildly ill; 4=moderately ill; 5=markedly ill; 6=severely ill; 7=among the most extremely ill patients. The CGI-S permits a global evaluation of the participant's condition at a given time.

  • Change From Baseline in Subject-reported Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) Total Score at End of Double- blind Induction Phase [ Time Frame: Baseline and End of Double-blind Induction Phase (Week 4) ]
    The GAD-7 is a brief and validated measure of overall anxiety. Each item is rated on a 4-point scale (0=not at all; 1=several days; 2=more than half the days; and 3=nearly every day). Item responses are summed to yield a total score with range of 0 to 21, where higher scores indicate more anxiety.

  • Change From Baseline in Subject-reported Health-related Quality of Life and Health Status as Assessed by EuroQol-5 Dimension-5 Level (EQ-5D-5L) at End of Double-blind Induction Phase [ Time Frame: Baseline and End of Double-blind Induction Phase (Week 4) ]
    The EQ-5D-5L is a standardized instrument for use as a measure of health outcome, primarily designed for self-completion by respondents. It consists of the EQ-5D-5L descriptive system and the EQ visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS). The EQ-5D-5L descriptive system comprises the following 5 dimensions: Mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression. Each of the 5 dimensions is divided into 5 levels of perceived problems (Level 1 indicating no problem, Level 2 indicating slight problems, Level 3 indicating moderate problems, Level 4 indicating severe problems, and Level 5 indicating extreme problems). The participant selects an answer for each of the 5 dimensions considering the response that best matches his or her health "today." The descriptive system can be represented as a health state. The EQ- VAS self-rating records the respondent's own assessment of his or her overall health status at the time of completion, on a scale of 0 to 100.


Estimated Enrollment: 348
Study Start Date: August 2015
Estimated Study Completion Date: August 2018
Estimated Primary Completion Date: April 2018 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Intranasal Esketamine 84mg plus Oral Antidepressant
As part of an initial titration, participants will self-administer 56 milligrams (mg) of esketamine intranasally on Day 1, and then 84 mg from Day 4 onwards, twice per week for 4 weeks as a fixed dose regimen in Double-Blind Induction Phase. In addition participants will simultaneously initiate a new, open-label oral antidepressant (i.e, duloxetine, escitalopram, sertraline, or venlafaxine extended release [XR]) on Day 1 that will be continued for the duration of Double-Blind Induction Phase.
Drug: Esketamine
Participants will self-administer either 84 mg or 56 mg of esketamine, intranasally, twice per week for 4 weeks as a fixed dose regimen in Double-Blind Induction Phase.
Drug: Duloxetine (Oral Antidepressant)
Duloxetine could be selected as the oral antidepressant medication by the investigator based on review of Massachusetts General Hospital - Antidepressant Treatment Response Questionnaire (MGH-ATRQ) and relevant prior antidepressant medication information. The minimum therapeutic dose is 60 milligram per day (mg/day).
Drug: Escitalopram (Oral antidepressant)
Escitalopram could be selected as the oral antidepressant medication by the investigator based on review of MGH-ATRQ and relevant prior antidepressant medication information. Escitalopram will be titrated up to a dose of 20 mg/day, but if not tolerated the dose can be reduced to the minimum therapeutic dose of 10 mg/day.
Drug: Sertraline (Oral Antidepressant)
Sertraline could be selected as the oral antidepressant medication by the investigator based on review of MGH-ATRQ and relevant prior antidepressant medication information. Sertraline will be titrated up to a dose of 200 mg/day, but if not tolerated the dose can be reduced to the minimum therapeutic dose of 50 mg/day.
Drug: Venlafaxine Extended Release (XR) (Oral Antidepressant)
Venlafaxine Extended Release could be selected as the oral antidepressant medication by the investigator based on review of MGH-ATRQ and relevant prior antidepressant medication information. Venlafaxine Extended Release will be titrated up to a dose of 225 mg/day, but if not tolerated the dose can be reduced to the minimum therapeutic dose of 150 mg/day.
Experimental: Esketamine 56 mg plus Oral Antidepressant
Starting from Day 1, participants will self-administer 56 mg of esketamine, intranasally, twice per week for 4 weeks as a fixed dose regimen in Double-Blind Induction Phase. In addition participants will simultaneously initiate a new, open-label oral antidepressant (i.e, duloxetine, escitalopram, sertraline, or venlafaxine XR) on Day 1 that will be continued for the duration of Double-Blind Induction Phase.
Drug: Esketamine
Participants will self-administer either 84 mg or 56 mg of esketamine, intranasally, twice per week for 4 weeks as a fixed dose regimen in Double-Blind Induction Phase.
Drug: Duloxetine (Oral Antidepressant)
Duloxetine could be selected as the oral antidepressant medication by the investigator based on review of Massachusetts General Hospital - Antidepressant Treatment Response Questionnaire (MGH-ATRQ) and relevant prior antidepressant medication information. The minimum therapeutic dose is 60 milligram per day (mg/day).
Drug: Escitalopram (Oral antidepressant)
Escitalopram could be selected as the oral antidepressant medication by the investigator based on review of MGH-ATRQ and relevant prior antidepressant medication information. Escitalopram will be titrated up to a dose of 20 mg/day, but if not tolerated the dose can be reduced to the minimum therapeutic dose of 10 mg/day.
Drug: Sertraline (Oral Antidepressant)
Sertraline could be selected as the oral antidepressant medication by the investigator based on review of MGH-ATRQ and relevant prior antidepressant medication information. Sertraline will be titrated up to a dose of 200 mg/day, but if not tolerated the dose can be reduced to the minimum therapeutic dose of 50 mg/day.
Drug: Venlafaxine Extended Release (XR) (Oral Antidepressant)
Venlafaxine Extended Release could be selected as the oral antidepressant medication by the investigator based on review of MGH-ATRQ and relevant prior antidepressant medication information. Venlafaxine Extended Release will be titrated up to a dose of 225 mg/day, but if not tolerated the dose can be reduced to the minimum therapeutic dose of 150 mg/day.
Active Comparator: Placebo plus Oral Antidepressant
Participants will self-administer matching placebo, intranasally, twice per week for 4 weeks as a fixed dose regimen in Double-Blind Induction Phase. In addition participants will simultaneously initiate a new, open-label oral antidepressant (i.e, duloxetine, escitalopram, sertraline, or venlafaxine XR) on Day 1 that will be continued for the duration of Double-Blind Induction Phase.
Drug: Placebo
Participants will self-administer matching placebo, intranasally, twice per week for 4 weeks as a fixed dose regimen in Double-Blind Induction Phase.
Drug: Duloxetine (Oral Antidepressant)
Duloxetine could be selected as the oral antidepressant medication by the investigator based on review of Massachusetts General Hospital - Antidepressant Treatment Response Questionnaire (MGH-ATRQ) and relevant prior antidepressant medication information. The minimum therapeutic dose is 60 milligram per day (mg/day).
Drug: Escitalopram (Oral antidepressant)
Escitalopram could be selected as the oral antidepressant medication by the investigator based on review of MGH-ATRQ and relevant prior antidepressant medication information. Escitalopram will be titrated up to a dose of 20 mg/day, but if not tolerated the dose can be reduced to the minimum therapeutic dose of 10 mg/day.
Drug: Sertraline (Oral Antidepressant)
Sertraline could be selected as the oral antidepressant medication by the investigator based on review of MGH-ATRQ and relevant prior antidepressant medication information. Sertraline will be titrated up to a dose of 200 mg/day, but if not tolerated the dose can be reduced to the minimum therapeutic dose of 50 mg/day.
Drug: Venlafaxine Extended Release (XR) (Oral Antidepressant)
Venlafaxine Extended Release could be selected as the oral antidepressant medication by the investigator based on review of MGH-ATRQ and relevant prior antidepressant medication information. Venlafaxine Extended Release will be titrated up to a dose of 225 mg/day, but if not tolerated the dose can be reduced to the minimum therapeutic dose of 150 mg/day.

Detailed Description:
This is a randomized, double-blind (neither the researchers nor the participants know what treatment the participant is receiving), active-controlled, multicenter study (more than 1 study site) in participants with TRD to assess the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of fixed doses of intranasal esketamine plus a newly initiated oral antidepressant compared with a newly initiated oral antidepressant (active comparator) plus intranasal placebo. The study will consist of 3 phases: Screening/Prospective Observational Phase (4-7 weeks), Double-blind Induction Phase (4-weeks), Follow-up Phase (24-weeks). Participants who rollover into a long-term maintenance study will not participate in the Follow-up Phase. At the start of the screening/prospective observational phase, the participant must have had documented non-response to at least 1 antidepressant treatment (based on Massachusetts General Hospital - Antidepressant Treatment Response Questionnair [MGH-ATRQ]) in the current episode of depression, and participant is taking a different oral antidepressant treatment on the MGH-ATRQ for at least the previous 2 weeks at or above the minimum therapeutic dose. This antidepressant treatment, as well as any other ongoing medications being taken for depression at screening (including adjunctive/ augmentation therapies), will continue from the start of Week 1 through the end of Week 4 of the screening/prospective observational phase. Participants will be randomly assigned to receive Intranasal esketamine (56 milligrams [mg]), Intranasal esketamine (84 mg), or Intranasal placebo. In addition, each participant will be assigned to receive 1 of 4 oral antidepressant medications from 2 different classes of antidepressant treatments, a Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) (escitalopram or sertraline) or a Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor (SNRI) (duloxetine or venlafaxine extended release [XR]), initiated on Day 1 and continued through the double-blind induction phase. Participants will be primarily evaluated for improvement in depressive symptoms as assessed by change in Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score at Week 4. Participants' safety will be monitored throughout the study.
  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 64 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • At the time of signing the informed consent form (ICF), participant must be a man or woman 18 (or older if the minimum legal age of consent in the country in which the study is taking place is greater than [>]18) to 64 years of age, inclusive
  • At the start of the screening/prospective observational phase, participant must meet the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria for single-episode major depressive disorder (MDD) (if single-episode MDD, the duration must be greater than or equal to [>=] 2 years) or recurrent MDD, without psychotic features, based upon clinical assessment and confirmed by the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI)
  • At the start of the screening/prospective observational phase, participant must have an Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Clinician rated ( IDS-C30) total score of greater than or equal to (>=) 34
  • At the start of the screening/prospective observational phase, participants must have had non-response (less than or equal to [<=25] percent [%] improvement) to >=1 but less than or equal to (<=) 5 (if current episode is >2 years, upper limit is applicable to only the last 2 years) oral antidepressant treatments taken at adequate dosage and for adequate duration, as assessed using the Massachusetts General Hospital - Antidepressant Treatment Response Questionnaire (MGH-ATRQ) and documented by medical history and pharmacy/prescription records, for the current episode of depression.

Participant is taking a different oral antidepressant treatment on the MGH-ATRQ for at least the previous 2 weeks at or above the minimum therapeutic dose

- The participant's current major depressive episode, depression symptom severity (Week 1 MADRS total score >=28 required), and antidepressant treatment response in the current depressive episode, must be confirmed using a Site Independent Qualification Assessment

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Participants who have previously demonstrated nonresponse of depressive symptoms to esketamine or ketamine in the current major depressive episode, to all 4 of the oral antidepressant treatment options available for the double-blind induction phase (i.e, duloxetine, escitalopram, sertraline, and venlafaxine extended release [XR]) in the current major depressive episode (based on MGH-ATRQ), or an adequate course of treatment with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in the current major depressive episode, defined as at least 7 treatments with unilateral/bilateral ECT
  • Participant has received vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) or has received deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the current episode of depression
  • Participant has a current or prior DSM-5 diagnosis of a psychotic disorder or MDD with psychotic features bipolar or related disorders (confirmed by the MINI), obsessive compulsive disorder (current only), intellectual disability (DSM-5 diagnostic codes 317, 318.0, 318.1, 318.2, 315.8, and 319), autism spectrum disorder, borderline personality disorder, antisocial personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, or narcissistic personality disorder
  • Participant has homicidal ideation/intent, per the investigator's clinical judgment, or has suicidal ideation with some intent to act within 6 months prior to the start of the screening/prospective observational phase, per the investigator's clinical judgment or based on the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS)
  • Participants with history of moderate or severe substance or alcohol use disorder according to DSM-5 criteria
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02417064

Contacts
Contact: Use link at the bottom of the page to see if you qualify for an enrolling site (see list). If you still have questions: JNJ.CT@sylogent.com

  Show 141 Study Locations
Sponsors and Collaborators
Janssen Research & Development, LLC
Investigators
Study Director: Janssen Research & Development, LLC Clinical Trial Janssen Research & Development, LLC
  More Information

Additional Information:
Responsible Party: Janssen Research & Development, LLC
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02417064     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: CR107146
ESKETINTRD3001 ( Other Identifier: Janssen Research & Development, LLC )
2014-004584-20 ( EudraCT Number )
Study First Received: April 10, 2015
Last Updated: March 2, 2017

Keywords provided by Janssen Research & Development, LLC:
Treatment-resistant Depression
Esketamine
Placebo
Oral Antidepressant

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Depression
Depressive Disorder
Depressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant
Behavioral Symptoms
Mood Disorders
Mental Disorders
Antidepressive Agents
Citalopram
Duloxetine Hydrochloride
Sertraline
Venlafaxine Hydrochloride
Dexetimide
Psychotropic Drugs
Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors
Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors
Membrane Transport Modulators
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Neurotransmitter Agents
Serotonin Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation
Antiparkinson Agents
Anti-Dyskinesia Agents
Parasympatholytics
Autonomic Agents
Peripheral Nervous System Agents
Muscarinic Antagonists
Cholinergic Antagonists
Cholinergic Agents
Serotonin and Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibitors

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on March 27, 2017