Child Protective Outcomes Among Ultra-poor Families in Burkina Faso
|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02415933|
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : April 14, 2015
Last Update Posted : February 17, 2017
|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment|
|Child Abuse Child Maltreatment||Behavioral: Trickle Up Behavioral: Trickle Up Plus|
This study evaluates a combined economic empowerment and child rights intervention to prevent violence against children and exploitation of children in ultra-poor communities in Burkina Faso. This evaluation study takes place in the Nord Region of Burkina Faso which is located in the Sahel Desert on the border to Mali. The Nord Region is characterized by extreme poverty and an ongoing food and nutrition crisis due to cyclical droughts. Extreme poverty heightens risks of violence and exploitation of children, particularly girls, who may end up in the worst forms of child labor as defined by the UN (e.g., slavery, debt bondage, forced or hazardous work in gold mines, cotton fields, or plantations in the Ivory Coast or in the South of Burkina Faso, involving physical deprivation and violence). About 1.25 million (or 37.8%) of children ages 5-14 in Burkina Faso are working to augment the incomes of their families, or because their families are too poor to support them. Adolescent girls being sent away to work as maids, facing risks of sexual exploitation and abuse. Boys being sent to religious schools madrassas, where they are made to do unpaid and/or hazardous work including begging in the street, and are subject to physical abuse.
The study employs a 3-arm cluster (group) randomized control trial design with baseline and one-year follow-up and includes 360 households (120 households per arm). Each selected household includes a female primary caregiver with a child between the ages of 10-15 who is also able to participate in the evaluation study. The study evaluates the efficacy of an economic empowerment program (Trickle Up) and a combination economic empowerment and child rights sensitization program (Trickle Up Plus) to prevent child separation and potential subsequent exposure to exploitation, abuse, and hazardous working conditions among children. Randomization occurred at the village level to assign households to three study arms: Trickle Up, Trickle Up Plus or the wait-list condition which serves as the control arm. Participants were recruited from 12 impoverished comparable villages that were selected based on socio-economic status (poverty ranking and food insecurity), geography, population size, and distance from urban center. Within these communities, families living in ultra-poverty were identified using a Participatory Wealth Ranking (PWR) exercise.
The evaluation study is implemented in partnership with the Trickle Up organization, Women's Refugee Council (WRC), and Aide aux Enfants et aux Families Démunies (ADEFAD).
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Actual Enrollment :||720 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Parallel Assignment|
|Masking:||Single (Outcomes Assessor)|
|Official Title:||Evaluating Child Protective Effects of Economic Strengthening and Child Rights Interventions Among Ultra-poor Families in Burkina Faso|
|Actual Study Start Date :||October 2014|
|Primary Completion Date :||December 2016|
|Study Completion Date :||December 2016|
Experimental: Trickle Up
Behavioral: Trickle Up
Female caregivers (mothers) receive a package of interventions on economic empowerment and livelihood strengthening:
Experimental: Trickle Up Plus
Economic empowerment + child rights sensitization
Behavioral: Trickle Up Plus
In addition to the economic empowerment program for women (Trickle Up), all members of the household assigned to Trickle Up+ arm receive sensitization component on beliefs and knowledge related to protection of children from violence and exploitation. Training sessions are developed and delivered by a local organization, Aide aux Enfants et aux Familles Démunies (ADEFAD).
Sessions involve all members of the household and focus on knowledge and cultural norms associated with child protective outcomes (e.g. the dangers of child separation such as sending children away for work, the importance of education for girls, risks of child and forced marriage).
No Intervention: Wait-list
Women in villages assigned to the control arm do not receive any intervention during the study period, but are placed on a wait-list to receive the intervention upon completion of the evaluation phase.
- Change in Child Protection [ Time Frame: Baseline, 12 months, 24 months ]Questions assess children's labor-related family separation, early and forced marriage, involvement in child labor and exposure to the Worst Forms of Child Labor (e.g. slavery, debt bondage, serfdom, transactional sex, forced or hazardous work). Questions adapted from International Labour Organization (ILO)'s Statistical Information and Monitoring Programme on Child Labour (SIMPOC) Survey.
- Change in Exposure to Child Abuse [ Time Frame: Baseline, 12 months, 24 months ]Exposure to physical and emotional violence is measured using the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect Screening Tool (Child Abuse Screening Tool, Children's Version / ICASTCH).
- Change in Child Mental Health [ Time Frame: Baseline, 12 months, 24 months ]Child's emotional well-being and mental health problems (depression, post-traumatic symptoms and low self-esteem) are measured using Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale (CRIES).
- Change in Mother's Level of Depression [ Time Frame: Baseline, 12 months, 24 months ]Change in mother's level of depression is assessed by Patient Health Questionnaire / PHQ-9
- Change in Mother's Level of Anxiety [ Time Frame: Baseline, 12 months, 24 months ]Change in mother's level of anxiety is assessed by GAD-7 Anxiety
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02415933
|Trickle Up Burkina Faso|
|Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso|
|Principal Investigator:||Leyla Ismayilova, PhD||University of Chicago|