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Evaluate if Response to Infliximab or Adalimumab May be Regained With an Immunomodulator

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02413047
Recruitment Status : Terminated (physician decision to stop study early due to low enrollment)
First Posted : April 9, 2015
Results First Posted : November 4, 2019
Last Update Posted : November 4, 2019
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Matthew Bohm, Indiana University

Brief Summary:
The immunogenicity of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNF) therapy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an important cause of loss of response to therapy that may lead to escalation of dose or discontinuation of therapy. Antibodies may develop to infliximab (ATI) or to adalimumab (ATA) and cause this loss of response, also known as a secondary loss of response. An alternative approach is the addition of immunomodulator (IM) therapy to counteract the antibody response and regain efficacy of the biologic medication. The investigators' goal is to treat patients' who have lost response to adalimumab or infliximab with an immunomodulator with the goal of eliminating the circulating antibodies to the anti-TNF and restoring efficacy.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Inflammatory Bowel Disease Ulcerative Colitis Crohn's Disease Drug: Azathioprine Drug: 6 mercaptopurine Drug: Methotrexate Not Applicable

Detailed Description:

The immunogenicity of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNF) therapy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an important cause of loss of response to therapy that may lead to escalation of dose or discontinuation of therapy. Antibodies may develop to infliximab (ATI) or to adalimumab (ATA) and cause this loss of response, also known as a secondary loss of response. In an attempt to overcome these antibodies, dose escalation can be accomplished either by increasing the dose or shortening the interval between doses. The ability of dose escalation to overcome loss of response due to the presence of ATI or ATA remains controversial. Escalation of dose increases the cost of therapy substantially. If the decision is made to discontinue therapy after a secondary loss of response, a clinician may choose to switch to an alternate anti-TNF therapy of which there are currently only four. Loss of response to one agent predicts a lesser response to other anti-TNF agents and with a limited number of therapeutic options the goal should be to optimize therapy rather than to discontinue therapy.

An alternative approach is the addition of immunomodulator (IM) therapy to counteract the antibody response and regain efficacy of the biologic medication. Three such IMs known to be effective in the treatment of IBD are azathioprine (AZA), 6-mercaptopurine (6MP) and methotrexate (MTX). The SONIC trial showed that patients on infliximab and azathioprine only developed antibodies at 4% of the time as opposed to those on infliximab monotherapy who formed ATI at 13%. The same principal was shown during the COMMIT trial in which patients on infliximab alone had ATI at a rate of 20% versus 4% on methotrexate plus infliximab. Ben-Horin et al. reported five patients treated initially with infliximab monotherapy whom had secondary loss of response based on clinical symptoms. These patients had ATI and all had undetectable troughs of infliximab. In all five patients ATI became undetectable, an adequate trough level was restored and the patients regained clinical response with the addition of an immunomodulator. Combination therapy with azathioprine and infliximab has led to a higher percentage of patients in steroid free remission than either drug alone. Our goal is to treat patients' who have lost response to adalimumab or infliximab with an immunomodulator with the goal of eliminating the circulating antibodies to the anti-TNF and restoring efficacy.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 3 participants
Allocation: N/A
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Pilot Study to Evaluate if Response to Infliximab or Adalimumab May be Regained With the Addition of an Immunomodulator
Actual Study Start Date : May 2015
Actual Primary Completion Date : February 2018
Actual Study Completion Date : February 2018

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine


Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Immunomodulator
Azathioprine, 6 mercaptopurine or methotrexate.
Drug: Azathioprine
Medication will be given in pill form to patients to take daily as long as the patient has not been intolerant to it in the past.
Other Name: Imuran

Drug: 6 mercaptopurine
Medication will be given in pill form to patients to take daily as long as the patient has not been intolerant to it in the past as an alternative to imuran

Drug: Methotrexate
Medication will be given in subcutaneous injection form once a week if the patient cannot take imuran or 6 mercaptopurine.




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Harvey Bradshaw Index HBI: Decrease >3 Points or Remission Score<5 [ Time Frame: 4 months ]

    The Harvey-Bradshaw index (HBI) is a simplified version of the CDAI to foster a systematic collection of clinical data related to Crohn's disease.

    The index considers five parameters, exclusively clinical; patient well-being, abdominal pain, number of liquid or soft stools, abdominal mass, and complications.


  2. Therapeutic Trough Level for Infliximab is Defined as >3 and as > 5 for Adalimumab. [ Time Frame: 4 months ]
    Trough level is the lowest level of drug detected in a subject prior to next dose of medication

  3. Ulcerative Colitis Clinical Score UCCS Decrease >3 Points or Remission Score <3 [ Time Frame: 4 months ]
    UCCS is the ulcerative colitis clinical score which is based on disease activity. The score is based on bowel movements, blood in stool, overall well being, and global assessment.

  4. Change Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire SIBDQ [ Time Frame: 4 months ]
    SIBDQ is the short inflammatory bowel disease questionnaire which is a health-related quality of life tool measuring physical, social, and emotional status.

  5. Eliminate Antibodies: Threshold Levels for ATI is < 3.1and is < 1.7 for ADA. [ Time Frame: 4 months ]
    unwanted immunogenicity is an immune response by an organism against a therapeutic antigen. This reaction leads to production of anti-drug antibodies inactivating the therapeutic effects of the treatment.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Improvement or Normalization of Mayo Endoscopy Score for UC Patients [ Time Frame: 4 months ]
    Mayo endoscopy score is scoring completed during the endoscopy to evaluate disease activity. Scoring is based on stool frequency, rectal bleeding, mucosal appearance at endoscopy, and physician rating of disease activity

  2. Improvement or Normalization of C-reactive Protein, Sedimentation Rate and Fecal Calprotectin [ Time Frame: 4 months ]
    c-reactive protein, sedimentation rate, and fecal calprotectin were collected to monitor the level of inflammation in the subject. Improvement was determined if inflammation level was reduced.

  3. Improvement or Normalization of the Simple Endoscopic Score-Crohn's Disease (SES-CD) [ Time Frame: 4 months ]
    SESCD is the simple endoscopic score for crohn's disease patients scored during endoscopy. The scoring is based on appearance of ulcers/sizing, % of ulcerative surface, % of affected surface, and if there were any narrowings or strictures found.



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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 80 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Patients with inflammatory bowel disease who on are stable doses of infliximab or adalimumab for at least 3 months who experience a secondary loss of response to the medication based on clinical symptoms.
  • Presence of at least one objective marker of active disease: active disease based on endoscopy, elevated fecal calprotectin or serologic markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein or sedimentation rate).
  • Crohn's patients have a Harvey Bradshaw index >5
  • Ulcerative colitis patients have a Ulcerative Colitis Clinical Score > 5
  • Have an undetectable or inadequate trough level of infliximab or adalimumab and detectable ATI or ADA.
  • Oral corticosteroid therapy is allowed. (prednisone at a stable dose ≤30 mg/day, budesonide at a stable dose ≤9 mg/day, or equivalent steroid) provided that the dose has been stable for the 4 weeks immediately prior to enrollment if corticosteroids have recently been initiated

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Previous noncompliant with medications
  • < 18 years of age or >80 years of age.
  • Congestive heart failure
  • Abnormal liver tests alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or aspartate aminotransferase (AST) 2 × the upper limit of normal (ULN) or leucopenia WBC count <3 × 109/L
  • Pregnant or planning on becoming pregnant.
  • Active tuberculosis or hepatitis B infection
  • Any cancer within the past 5 years. (Exception non-melanomatous skin cancer.)
  • Receiving any immunomodulator therapy within the past 3 months
  • Evidence of or treatment for C. difficile infection within 60 days or other intestinal pathogen within 30 days prior to enrollment
  • Clinically significant extra-intestinal infection (e.g., pneumonia, pyelonephritis) within 30 days of the initial screening visit
  • Any live vaccinations within 30 days prior to study drug administration except for the influenza vaccine
  • Any identified congenital or acquired immunodeficiency (e.g., common variable immunodeficiency, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] infection, organ transplantation)
  • Any unstable or uncontrolled cardiovascular, pulmonary, hepatic, renal, endocrine/metabolic, or other medical disorder that, in the opinion of the investigator, would confound the study results or compromise patient safety
  • Unable to give own informed consent

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02413047


Locations
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United States, Indiana
Indiana University Hospital
Indianapolis, Indiana, United States, 46062
Sponsors and Collaborators
Indiana University
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: Matthew Bohm, DO IndianaU IRB
  Study Documents (Full-Text)

Documents provided by Matthew Bohm, Indiana University:
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Responsible Party: Matthew Bohm, Assistant Professor of Medicine, Indiana University
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02413047    
Other Study ID Numbers: 1502834262
First Posted: April 9, 2015    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: November 4, 2019
Last Update Posted: November 4, 2019
Last Verified: October 2019
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No
Plan Description: No individual participant data was analyzed
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Crohn Disease
Colitis, Ulcerative
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Gastroenteritis
Gastrointestinal Diseases
Digestive System Diseases
Intestinal Diseases
Colitis
Colonic Diseases
Methotrexate
Mercaptopurine
Azathioprine
Abortifacient Agents, Nonsteroidal
Abortifacient Agents
Reproductive Control Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic
Antimetabolites
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Antineoplastic Agents
Dermatologic Agents
Enzyme Inhibitors
Folic Acid Antagonists
Immunosuppressive Agents
Immunologic Factors
Antirheumatic Agents
Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors