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Functional and Structural Imaging for Glaucoma (FSOCT)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Know the risks and potential benefits of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT01957267
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : October 8, 2013
Last Update Posted : July 7, 2020
National Eye Institute (NEI)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
David Huang, Oregon Health and Science University

Brief Summary:

The specific aims of the clinical studies are to:

  • Develop quantitative wide-field OCT angiography.
  • Simulate visual field results by combining structural and angiography OCT data.
  • Establish or validate age-adjusted normal reference ranges for above OCT-derived parameters.
  • Establish criteria for glaucoma diagnosis based on above imaging-derived parameters.
  • Evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of above OCT-derived parameters
  • Measure the rate of normal age-related change in above OCT-derived parameters.
  • Assess the reproducibility of above OCT-derived parameters.
  • Assess abilities of above OCT-derived parameters on predicting glaucoma conversion and progression.

Condition or disease

Detailed Description:

Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness in the US. The diagnosis and monitoring of glaucoma are important problems, not only because of its prevalence, but also because of its silent and irreversible nature. However all of the current diagnostic tests have serious limitations. Although elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is a risk factor, most glaucoma patients actually have IOP within normal range. Visual field (VF) tests are poorly reproducible, and a series of 3 tests are needed to establish diagnosis or confirm progression. Although ophthalmoscopic examination can detect optic nerve head (ONH) and nerve fiber layer (NFL) defects, reliability in diagnosis and tracking is hampered by its subjective and semi-quantitative nature. Although quantitative imaging with optical coherence tomography (OCT), scanning laser polarimetry (SLP), and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (cSLO) can more objectively detect ONH and NFL defects, their diagnostic accuracies are still not sufficient to be relied on alone for diagnostic screening. It has been estimated that about half of glaucoma patients in the US do not know that they have the disease. Thus, there is a need for improvements in glaucoma diagnostic technologies. One approach that deserves further exploration is blood flow imaging.

There is much circumstantial evidence that vascular factors play important roles in the pathophysiology of glaucoma:

  1. Systemic vasculopathy increases the risk of developing glaucoma. Hypertension, diabetes, and vasospastic conditions are all known risk factors. Normal tension glaucoma has also been linked to peripheral endothelial dysfunction and erectile dysfunction. This suggests that poor circulation may be a causative factor or a facilitative factor that predisposes the ONH to damage by elevated IOP.
  2. Decrease or fluctuation in ocular perfusion pressure was identified as an independent risk factor for progression in the Collaborative Normal-Tension Glaucoma Study and other studies. Nocturnal hypotension is also a risk factor for glaucoma progression.
  3. Medications that improve ocular perfusion appear to have protective effects that are not explained by the lowering of IOP.
  4. Optic disc hemorrhage and peripapillary atrophy are both associated with accelerated glaucoma progression. These finding may support a role for focal ischemia.
  5. Animal experiments show that increased IOP causes decreased ONH blood flow in the presence of low systemic blood pressure.

Despite the evidence, the management of glaucoma remains focused on the lowering of IOP, the one causative factor that responds to treatment and can be easily measured. Blood flow measurement is a research topic, but currently has no clinical role in the diagnosis, prognostic evaluation, or treatment of glaucoma. Therapies aimed at improving ocular circulation cannot be effectively developed without a practical method for quantitative and reproducible evaluation of ONH and retinal perfusion. Thus there is a great need to develop better technology for the evaluation of ocular circulation.

Using high-speed OCT systems, we have developed new methods to image and measure optic nerve head (ONH) and retinal blood flow. Preliminary results showed that VF loss was more highly correlated with retinal blood flow as measured by OCT than any neural structure measured by OCT or other imaging modality. Accordingly, the goal of the proposed project is to improve the diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of glaucoma by further developing novel functional OCT measurements using ultrahigh-speed (70-100 kHz) OCT technology.

Retinal blood flow, ONH circulation, optic disc rim volume, peripapillary nerve fiber layer volume, and macular ganglion cell complex volume are all pieces of the same glaucoma puzzle. This project will develop novel imaging methods that allow us to look at the whole picture using one tool - ultrahigh-speed OCT.

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Study Type : Observational
Estimated Enrollment : 160 participants
Observational Model: Cohort
Time Perspective: Prospective
Official Title: Longitudinal Observational Study Using Functional and Structural Optical Coherence Tomography to Diagnose and Guide Treatment of Glaucoma
Study Start Date : September 2013
Estimated Primary Completion Date : December 2023
Estimated Study Completion Date : December 2023

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Glaucoma

Glaucoma Group
Patients with clinically confirmed glaucomatous ONH or NFL defects, with or without VF abnormalities
Normal Group
Volunteers with healthy eyes

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Measure of retinal non-perfusion areas in mm2 [ Time Frame: 5 years ]
  2. Measure vessel density in percentage (%) [ Time Frame: 5 years ]
  3. Determine accuracy of sector visual field progression in OCT-based sector visual field simulation compared to actual visual field results. Measured in dB change over time. [ Time Frame: 5 years ]

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   40 Years to 85 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Sampling Method:   Non-Probability Sample
Study Population
The study will enroll both males and females and include all ethnic and racial groups through clinical practices in the centers. The study will enroll subjects in the older adult age range commonly affected by glaucoma - 40 years or older. The study will exclude people with life-threatening or debilitating illness that would make 5-year participation unlikely or cooperation with tests difficult. For similar reasons those older than 85 years are excluded. The study also excludes those with any disease that might confound the diagnosis of glaucoma. Otherwise people with any health status are eligible for enrollment. Two groups of participants are recruited in the study: healthy controls or participants with confirmed glaucoma.

Inclusion Criteria: Normal Subjects (both eyes must meet all criteria)

  1. No history or evidence of retinal pathology or glaucoma
  2. Normal Humphrey 24-2 VF: A mean defect (MD), corrected pattern standard deviation (CPSD) within 95% limits of normal reference, and glaucoma hemifield test (GHT) within normal limits (97%).
  3. Intraocular pressure < 21 mm Hg
  4. Central corneal pachymetry > 500 microns
  5. No chronic ocular or systemic corticosteroid use
  6. Open angle (gonioscopy must show 75% or more of the angle to be Grade 2 or more by Shaffer's grading system)
  7. Normal appearing ONH and NFL: vertical and horizontal cup/disc ratio (CDR) ≤ 0.5 and intact neuroretinal rim without peripapillary hemorrhages, notches, localized pallor, or NFL defect
  8. Symmetric ONH between left and right eyes: CDR difference < 0.2 in both vertical and horizontal dimensions

Inclusion criteria: Glaucoma Group

  1. ONH or NFL defect visible on slit-lamp biomicroscopy defined as one of following:

    1. diffuse or localized thinning of the rim
    2. disc (splinter) hemorrhage
    3. notch in the rim
    4. vertical cup/disc ratio greater than the fellow eye by > 0.2
  2. Presence or absence of VF defects as measured by Humphrey SITA 24-2 VF.

Exclusion Criteria: All Groups

  1. Best-corrected visual acuity less than 20/40
  2. Age < 40 or >80 years
  3. Refractive error of > +3.00 D or < -7.00 D
  4. Previous intraocular surgery except for uncomplicated cataract extraction with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation
  5. Diabetic retinopathy
  6. Other diseases that may cause VF loss or optic disc abnormalities
  7. Inability to clinically view or photograph the optic discs due to media opacity or poorly dilating pupil
  8. Inability to perform reliably on automated VF testing
  9. Life-threatening or debilitating illness making it unlikely patient could successfully complete the study.
  10. Refusal of informed consent or of commitment to the full length of the study

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT01957267

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Contact: Chinmay Deshpande, M.Optom. 503-494-9628
Contact: Denzil Romfh, OD 503-494-4351

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United States, Oregon
Oregon Health & Science University, Casey Eye Institute Recruiting
Portland, Oregon, United States, 97214
Contact: Chinmay Deshpande, M.Optom.    503-494-9628   
Contact: Denzil Romfh, OD    503-494-4351   
Sub-Investigator: Beth Edmunds, MD, PhD         
Sub-Investigator: Shandiz Tehrani, MD         
Sub-Investigator: Hana Takusagawa, MD         
Sub-Investigator: Lorinna Lombardi, MD         
Sub-Investigator: David Huang, MD, PhD         
Sub-Investigator: Ellen Davis, MD         
Sub-Investigator: Seema Gupta, MD         
Sub-Investigator: Aiyin Chen, MD         
Sub-Investigator: Eleisa Ing, MD         
Sponsors and Collaborators
Oregon Health and Science University
National Eye Institute (NEI)
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Principal Investigator: John Morrison, MD Oregon Health and Science University
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Responsible Party: David Huang, John Morrison, MD, Director of Glaucoma Services & Professor of Ophthalmology, Oregon Health & Science University, Oregon Health and Science University Identifier: NCT01957267    
Other Study ID Numbers: OHSU IRB #00009729
1R01EY023285 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
First Posted: October 8, 2013    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: July 7, 2020
Last Verified: July 2020
Keywords provided by David Huang, Oregon Health and Science University:
Optical Coherence Tomography
Intraocular pressure
Optic nervehead
Nerve fiber layer
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Ocular Hypertension
Eye Diseases