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A Study of Subcutaneous Tocilizumab as Monotherapy and/or in Combination With Non-Biologic Disease Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs (DMARDs) in Participants With Rheumatoid Arthritis

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01941095
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : September 13, 2013
Results First Posted : November 13, 2018
Last Update Posted : November 13, 2018
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Hoffmann-La Roche

Brief Summary:
This Phase IIIb, multicenter, open label, single arm study will evaluate the safety and efficacy of subcutaneous (SC) tocilizumab as monotherapy or in combination with methotrexate or other non-biologic DMARDs in participants with active rheumatoid arthritis who are either naïve to or have an inadequate response to prior non-biologic or/and biologic DMARDs. The anticipated time on study treatment is 52 weeks. Those participants who will complete the 60-week study period and have achieved Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28) remission or a good European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response at 52 weeks will be eligible to enter the extension phase until tocilizumab is commercially available and reimbursed in Greece.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Rheumatoid Arthritis Drug: Azathioprine Drug: Chloroquine Drug: Hydroxychloroquine Drug: Leflunomide Drug: Methotrexate Drug: Sulfasalazine Drug: Tocilizumab Phase 3

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 100 participants
Allocation: N/A
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Multicenter, Open Label, Phase IIIb Study to Evaluate the Safety and Tolerability of Subcutaneous Tocilizumab as Monotherapy and/or in Combination With Methotrexate or Other Non-Biologic Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis
Actual Study Start Date : November 20, 2013
Actual Primary Completion Date : July 10, 2016
Actual Study Completion Date : July 10, 2016

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

Drug Information available for: Tocilizumab

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Tocilizumab
Participants will receive tocilizumab 162 milligrams (mg) SC injection once a week (QW) either as monotherapy or in combination with methotrexate or other non-biologic DMARDs during the treatment period of 52 weeks. The choice of monotherapy or combination treatment is according to the physician's judgment up to Week 24. Depending upon the participant's response to study regimen at Week 24, participant may either continue/discontinue/switch to tocilizumab monotherapy or may lead to intensification of methotrexate/non-biologic DMARDs with tocilizumab at a fixed dose of 162 mg SC QW till Week 52. After Week 52, participants who remain in study will enter a 8 week wash-out period and then (from Week 60) will proceed to the extension phase until tocilizumab is commercially available in Greece. Permitted DMARDs include methotrexate, azathioprine, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, leflunomide, and sulfasalazine.
Drug: Azathioprine
Participants may receive azathioprine as a concomitant therapy with tocilizumab as per physician's judgment at a stable dose that was initiated at least 4 weeks prior to baseline.

Drug: Chloroquine
Participants may receive chloroquine as a concomitant therapy with tocilizumab as per physician's judgment at a stable dose that was initiated at least 4 weeks prior to baseline.

Drug: Hydroxychloroquine
Participants may receive hydroxychloroquine as a concomitant therapy with tocilizumab as per physician's judgment at a stable dose that was initiated at least 4 weeks prior to baseline.

Drug: Leflunomide
Participants may receive leflunomide as a concomitant therapy with tocilizumab as per physician's judgment at a stable dose that was initiated at least 4 weeks prior to baseline.

Drug: Methotrexate
Participants may receive methotrexate as a concomitant therapy with tocilizumab as per physician's judgment at a stable dose that was initiated at least 4 weeks prior to baseline.

Drug: Sulfasalazine
Participants may receive sulfasalazine as a concomitant therapy with tocilizumab as per physician's judgment at a stable dose that was initiated at least 4 weeks prior to baseline.

Drug: Tocilizumab
Participants will receive tocilizumab at a fixed dose of 162 mg SC QW either as monotherapy or in combination with non-biologic DMARDs.
Other Name: RoActemra, Actemra




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Percentage of Participants Who Achieved Disease Activity Score Based on 28 Joint Count and Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (DAS28-ESR) Remission at Week 24 [ Time Frame: Week 24 ]
    DAS28-ESR score is a measure of participant's disease activity calculated using tender joint count in 28 joints (TJC28), swollen joint count in 28 joints (SJC28), patient global assessment of disease activity (PGA) (general health [GH]) using visual analog scale (VAS): 0 millimeter (mm)=no disease activity to 100 mm=maximum disease activity, displayed on the 100 mm horizontal VAS, and acute phase response (ESR in millimeters per hour [mm/hr]). The score is calculated using the following formula: DAS28-ESR = [0.56 multiplied by (*) square root (√) of TJC28] plus (+) [0.28*√SJC28]+[0.70*the natural logarithm (ln) ESR]+[0.014*GH]. DAS28-ESR score varies from 0 to 10, where higher scores represent greater disease activity. DAS28-ESR score of less than (<) 2.6 represents DAS28-ESR remission.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Percentage of Participants Who Maintained DAS28-ESR Remission From Week 24 up to Week 52 Among Participants on Tocilizumab Monotherapy Since Week 24 [ Time Frame: Weeks 24, 28, 32, 36, 40, 44, 48, 52 ]
    DAS28-ESR score is a measure of participant's disease activity calculated using TJC28, SJC28, PGA using VAS 0 mm=no disease activity to 100 mm=maximum disease activity, displayed on the 100 mm horizontal VAS, and acute phase response (ESR in mm/hr) for a total possible score of 0 to 10. The score is calculated using the following formula: DAS28-ESR = [0.56 * √TJC28 + [0.28*√SJC28]+[0.70*ln ESR]+[0.014*GH]. DAS28-ESR score varies from 0 to 10, where higher scores represent greater disease activity. DAS28-ESR score <2.6 represents DAS28-ESR remission. The percentage reported for Week 24 is based on confirmation on switching to SC tocilizumab monotherapy.

  2. Percentage of Participants Who Achieved DAS28-ESR Remission/Low Disease Activity (LDA) From Week 28 up to Week 52 Among Participants With Intensification of Methotrexate/Other Non-Biologic DMARDs in Combination With Tocilizumab Since Week 24 [ Time Frame: Weeks 28, 32, 36, 40, 44, 48, 52 ]
    DAS28-ESR score is a measure of participant's disease activity calculated using TJC28, SJC28, PGA using VAS 0 mm=no disease activity to 100 mm=maximum disease activity, displayed on the 100 mm horizontal VAS, and acute phase response (ESR in mm/hr) for a total possible score of 0 to 10. The score is calculated using the following formula: DAS28-ESR = [0.56 * √TJC28 + [0.28*√SJC28]+[0.70*ln ESR]+[0.014*GH]. DAS28-ESR score varies from 0 to 10, where higher scores represent greater disease activity. DAS28-ESR score <2.6 represents DAS28-ESR remission. DAS28-ESR score greater than or equal to (>/=) 2.6 and <3.2 represents LDA.

  3. Change From Baseline in DAS28-ESR up to Week 52 [ Time Frame: Baseline (Week 1), Weeks 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36, 40, 44, 48, 52 ]
    DAS28-ESR score is a measure of participant's disease activity calculated using TJC28, SJC28, PGA using VAS 0 mm=no disease activity to 100 mm=maximum disease activity, displayed on the 100 mm horizontal VAS, and acute phase response (ESR in mm/hr) for a total possible score of 0 to 10. The score is calculated using the following formula: DAS28-ESR = [0.56 * √TJC28 + [0.28*√SJC28]+[0.70*ln ESR]+[0.014*GH]. DAS28-ESR score varies from 0 to 10, where higher scores represent greater disease activity. A negative change from baseline indicates an improvement.

  4. Number of Participants With American College of Rheumatology 20 (ACR20) Response [ Time Frame: Weeks 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36, 40, 44, 48, 52 ]
    ACR20 response was defined as >/=20% improvement from baseline in both TJC28 and SJC28 as well as in 3 out of 5 additional parameters: Separate patient and physician's global assessment of disease activity on VAS (0 mm=no disease activity to 100 mm=maximum disease activity, displayed on the 100 mm horizontal VAS), patient's assessment of pain on VAS (0 mm=no pain to 100 mm=unbearable pain, displayed on the 100 mm horizontal VAS), Health Assessment Questionnaire - Disability Index (HAQ-DI) (20 questions, 8 components: dressing/grooming, arising, eating, walking, hygiene, reach, grip, and activities, 0=without any difficulty to 3=unable to do), and acute phase response (ESR in mm/hr, for a total possible score of 0 to 10).

  5. Percentage of Participants With Good, Moderate, or No Response According to European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) Response Criteria [ Time Frame: Weeks 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36, 40, 44, 48, 52 ]
    Response to treatment was determined using EULAR criteria based upon DAS28 absolute scores at the assessment visit and the DAS28 reduction from the baseline visit. Participants with a score lesser than or equal to (</=) 3.2 and reduction of greater than (>) 1.2 points were assessed as having a 'good' response. Participants with a score >3.2 with reduction of >1.2 points, or a score </=5.1 with reduction of >0.6 to </=1.2 points, were assessed as having a 'moderate' response. Participants with a score >5.1 with reduction of >0.6 to </=1.2 points, or any score with reduction </=0.6 points, were assessed as having 'no response'.

  6. Change From Baseline in Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI) Score up to Week 52 [ Time Frame: Baseline (Week 1), Weeks 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36, 40, 44, 48, 52 ]
    SDAI is an index for measuring disease activity. SDAI is the numerical sum of five outcome parameters: TJC28 and SJC28, PGA and physician global assessment of disease activity assessed on VAS (0 centimeter [cm]-10 cm); 0 cm= no disease activity and 10 cm= worst disease activity, and CRP (in milligrams per deciliter [mg/dL]). SDAI total score ranges from 0 to 86, with higher scores indicating increased (or severe) disease activity. SDAI score </=3.3 indicates clinical remission, >3.4 to 11 = low disease activity, >11 to 26 = moderate disease activity, and >26 = high (or severe) disease activity.

  7. Change From Baseline in TJC28 up to Week 52 [ Time Frame: Baseline (Week 1), Weeks 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36, 40, 44, 48, 52 ]
    28 joints were assessed for tenderness and joints were classified as tender/not tender giving a total possible tender joint count score of 0 to 28. A negative change from baseline indicated improvement.

  8. Change From Baseline in SJC28 up to Week 52 [ Time Frame: Baseline (Week 1), Weeks 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36, 40, 44, 48, 52 ]
    28 joints were assessed for swelling and joints were classified as swollen/not swollen giving a total possible swollen joint count score of 0 to 28. A negative change from baseline indicated improvement.

  9. Percentage of Participants With Corticosteroid Dose Reduction or Discontinuation [ Time Frame: From Baseline up to Week 52 ]
  10. Number of Participants by Reasons (Categories) for Corticosteroid Dose Reduction or Discontinuation [ Time Frame: From Baseline up to Week 52 ]
    Reasons for corticosteroid dose reduction included: Safety Reasons (including elevated liver function test results, respiratory infections, infections and infestations, gastrointestinal disorders etc.); Other Reasons (disease remission, improvement etc.); and Unknown Reasons (including no reason). Number of participants by reasons (Safety, Other, Unknown) for corticosteroid dose reduction or discontinuation were reported.

  11. Number of Participants With Anti-Tocilizumab Antibodies (ATA) [ Time Frame: Baseline (Week 1), Weeks 12, 24, 36, 52, and 8 weeks after Week 52 dose (Week 60) ]
    All samples were tested using a screening assay and, if positive, by a confirmation assay to determine specificity and a neutralizing assay to test for the ability to inhibit the activity of tocilizumab. Number of participants with a positive assay result for screening assay (ATA - Screen), confirmatory assay (ATA - Confirmatory), and neutralizing assay (ATA - Neutralizing) was reported separately.

  12. Soluble Interleukin-6 Receptor (sIL-6R) Levels [ Time Frame: Baseline (Week 1), Weeks 12, 24, 36, 52, and 8 weeks after Week 52 dose (Week 60) ]
  13. Tocilizumab Serum Levels [ Time Frame: Baseline (Week 1), Weeks 12, 24, 36, 52, and 8 weeks after Week 52 dose (Week 60) ]
  14. PGA, Using VAS Score [ Time Frame: Baseline (Week 1), Weeks 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36, 40, 44, 48, 52 ]
    PGA was assessed on a 0 to 100 mm horizontal VAS. The extreme left end of the line = 0 mm, and was described as "no disease activity" (symptom-free and no arthritis symptoms) and the extreme right end = 100 mm, and was described as "maximum disease activity" (maximum arthritis disease activity). Higher values correspond to worst state of participant (high disease activity).

  15. Patient Assessment of Pain, Using VAS Score [ Time Frame: Baseline (Week 1), Weeks 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36, 40, 44, 48, 52 ]
    The participant's level of pain was assessed on a 0 to 100 mm horizontal VAS. The extreme left end of the line = 0 mm, and was described as "no pain" and the extreme right end = 100 mm, and was described as "unbearable pain". Higher values correspond to worst state of participant (higher level of pain).

  16. HAQ-DI Score [ Time Frame: Baseline (Week 1), Weeks 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36, 40, 44, 48, 52 ]
    The Stanford HAQ-DI is a patient-reported questionnaire specific for rheumatoid arthritis. It consists of 20 questions referring to 8 component sets: dressing/grooming, arising, eating, walking, hygiene, reach, grip, and activities. Responses in each component set were scored from 0 (without any difficulty) to 3 (unable to do). The highest score recorded for any question in a category determines the score for the category, unless aids, devices, or help from another person was required. The HAQ-DI score was calculated as the sum of the category scores divided by the number of categories scored, giving a possible range of scores from 0 to 3. Scores of 0 to 1 are generally considered to represent "mild to moderate difficulty", 1 to 2 as "moderate to severe disability", and 2 to 3 as "severe to very severe disability".

  17. Percentage of Participants Who Received All Planned Study Medication (Compliance) [ Time Frame: Baseline (Week 1), Weeks 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36, 40, 44, 48, 52 ]
    Compliance (in terms of percentage of participants who received all planned study medication) was assessed on the basis of participant diary cards and return records.

  18. Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy (FACIT)-Fatigue Total Score [ Time Frame: Baseline (Week 1), Weeks 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36, 40, 44, 48, 52 ]
    FACIT-Fatigue total score is sum of FACIT-General subscale score and FACIT-Fatigue (additional concerns) subscale score. FACT-General consists of 27 questions grouped in 4 domains of general health-related quality of life: physical well-being, social/family well-being, emotional well-being, and functional well-being; each item ranges from 0 (not at all) to 4 (very much). FACT-General score ranges between 0-108. FACIT-Fatigue subscale is a 13-item questionnaire that evaluates self-reported fatigue and its impact upon daily activities. Each item ranges from 0 (Not at all) to 4 (Very much). For all items, except for the 2 negatively stated ones, the code was reversed and a new score was calculated as 4 minus the participant's response. The sum of all responses resulted in the FACIT-Fatigue subscale score for a total possible score of 0 (worse score) to 52 (better score). FACIT-Fatigue total score (FACT-G plus FACT-F subscale scores) ranges from 0 (better score) to 160 (worse score).



Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Diagnosis of active rheumatoid arthritis according to the revised (1987) ACR criteria or EULAR/ACR (2010) criteria
  • Oral corticosteroids (less than or equal to [</=] 10 milligrams per day [mg/day] prednisolone or equivalent) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs; up to the maximum recommended dose) are permitted if on a stable dose regimen for greater than or equal to [>/=] 4 weeks prior to baseline
  • Permitted non biologic DMARDs are allowed if a stable dose for at least 4 weeks prior to baseline
  • Receiving treatment on an outpatient basis, not including tocilizumab
  • Females of childbearing potential and males with female partners of childbearing potential must agree to use a reliable means of contraception during the study; females of childbearing potential must use a reliable means of contraception for at least 3 month following the last dose of tocilizumab

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Major surgery (including joint surgery) within 8 weeks prior to screening or planned major surgery within 6 months following baseline
  • Rheumatic autoimmune disease other than rheumatoid arthritis; secondary Sjögren's syndrome with rheumatoid arthritis is permitted
  • Functional Class 4 as defined by the ACR Classification of Functional Status in Rheumatoid Arthritis
  • Diagnosis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis or juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and/or rheumatoid arthritis before the age of 16
  • Prior history of or current inflammatory joint disease other than rheumatoid arthritis
  • Participants with lack of peripheral venous access
  • Exposure to tocilizumab (either intravenous [IV] or SC) at any time prior to baseline
  • Treatment with any investigational agent within 4 weeks (or five half-lives of the investigational drug, whichever is longer) of screening
  • Previous treatment with any cell-depending therapies
  • Treatment with IV gamma globulin, plasmapheresis within 6 months of baseline
  • Intra-articular or parenteral corticosteroids within 4 weeks prior to baseline
  • Immunization with a live/attenuated vaccine within 4 weeks prior to baseline
  • Any previous treatment with alkylating agents such as chlorambucil, or with total lymphoid irradiation
  • History of severe allergic or anaphylactic reactions to human, humanized, or murine monoclonal antibodies
  • Evidence of serious uncontrolled concomitant cardiovascular, nervous system, pulmonary, renal, hepatic, endocrine (including uncontrolled diabetes mellitus), or gastrointestinal disease
  • Known active current or history of recurrent bacterial, viral, fungal, mycobacterial, or other infections
  • Any major episode of infection requiring hospitalization of treatment with IV antibiotics within 4 weeks of screening or oral antibiotics within 2 weeks of screening
  • Active tuberculosis (TB) requiring treatment within the previous 3 years
  • Positive for hepatitis B surface antigen or hepatitis C antibody
  • Primary or secondary immunodeficiency (history of or currently active)
  • Evidence of active malignant disease, malignancies diagnosed within the previous 10 years (except for basal and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin or carcinoma in situ of the cervix uteri that has been excised and cured), or breast cancer diagnosed within the previous 20 years
  • Pregnant or breast feeding women
  • History of alcohol, drug or chemical abuse within 1 year prior to screening
  • Neuropathies or other conditions that interfere with pain evaluation

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT01941095


Locations
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Greece
District Gen. Hosp. of Athens Laiko; A Propedeutic Internal Medicine Clinic & Research Center
Athens, Greece, 115 27
Laiko General Hospital; Dept. of Pathophysiology-Uni of Athens
Athens, Greece, 115 27
Hippokratio Hospital; 2Nd Internal Medicine
Athens, Greece, 11527
ATTIKO Hospital_4th University Internal Medicine Clinic
Haidari, Greece, 124 62
Uni General Hospital of Heraklion; Medicine and Rheumatology Clinical Immunology and Allergy Dept
Heraklion, Greece, 711 10
Uni Hospital of Ioannina; Rheumatology
Ioannina, Greece, 455 00
University General Hospital of Larissa; Rheumatology Unit
Larissa, Greece, 411 10
University Hospital of Patras; Rheumatology
Patras, Greece, 265 04
EUROMEDICA Geniki Kliniki Thessalonikis; Rheumatology Department
Thessaloniki, Greece, 544 65
General Hospital of Thessaloniki HIPPOKRATIO; Clinical Immunology Unit,2nd Dept of Internal Medicine
Thessaloniki, Greece, 546 42
Sponsors and Collaborators
Hoffmann-La Roche
Investigators
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Study Director: Clinical Trials Hoffmann-La Roche
Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
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Responsible Party: Hoffmann-La Roche
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01941095    
Other Study ID Numbers: ML28695
2013-000359-42 ( EudraCT Number )
First Posted: September 13, 2013    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: November 13, 2018
Last Update Posted: November 13, 2018
Last Verified: April 2018

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Arthritis
Arthritis, Rheumatoid
Joint Diseases
Musculoskeletal Diseases
Rheumatic Diseases
Connective Tissue Diseases
Autoimmune Diseases
Immune System Diseases
Hydroxychloroquine
Chloroquine
Sulfasalazine
Methotrexate
Azathioprine
Leflunomide
Abortifacient Agents, Nonsteroidal
Abortifacient Agents
Reproductive Control Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic
Antimetabolites
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Antineoplastic Agents
Dermatologic Agents
Enzyme Inhibitors
Folic Acid Antagonists
Immunosuppressive Agents
Immunologic Factors
Antirheumatic Agents
Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors
Antimalarials