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Risk Factors for Drusen Progression

This study is not yet open for participant recruitment. (see Contacts and Locations)
Verified January 2014 by Medical University of Vienna
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Stefan Sacu, Medical University of Vienna Identifier:
First received: April 10, 2013
Last updated: January 2, 2014
Last verified: January 2014

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the Western World. The etiology and pathogenesis of this disease remain largely unknown. In Europe about two million people suffer from AMD. According to the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) the disease can be classified into early, intermediate and late. Early age-related macular degeneration is characterized by the presence of small or medium-sized drusen and/or retinal pigmentary abnormalities. Intermediate age-related macular degeneration is characterized by large drusen or numerous medium-size drusen and/or geographic atrophy not extending to the center of the macula. Late age-related macular degeneration can be either atrophic with extension to the macula or neovascular. The late form of the disease is associated with a pronounced loss of visual acuity.

In the recent years several studies focused on risk factors for late AMD and a recent systematic review and meta-analysis reported risk factors for AMD based on 16 studies in almost 114000 subjects. Strong and consistent associations with late AMD for found for increasing age, current cigarette smoking, previous cataract surgery, and a family history of AMD. Consistent associations between late AMD and higher body mass index, history of cardiovascular disease, hypertension and higher plasma fibrinogen were also found, but the association was weak. Inconsistent associations were found for gender, ethnicity, diabetes, iris color, history of cerebrovascular disease, serum total and HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels.

Evidence has also accumulated that other factors influence the risk for AMD. Several genetic risk factors have been identified in the last years including genes in the alternative complement pathway and the RMS2/HTRA1 region. In addition, post-hoc analysis of data from the AREDS study has indicated that reduced intake of the omega-3 free fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docsahexaenoic acid are associated with the risk of late AMD thereby supporting previous population based studies. The AREDS study also revealed that reduced intake of the macular pigment lutein and zeaxanthin may be associated with late AMD, again supporting previous population-based studies. Finally, 2 small studies indicate that reduced choroidal blood flow is associated with an increased risk of developing late AMD.

Less data are available for the progression of early or intermediate AMD and the associated risk factors. This is at least partially related to the problems in quantifying progression of drusen size and volume. In the recent years, however, significant efforts have been achieved in optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based methods for quantifying drusen progression and drusen volume. Polarization-sensitive OCT is the most promising of these approaches and will be used to quantify drusen area and volume in the present study.

Age-related Macular Degeneration

Study Type: Observational
Study Design: Observational Model: Cohort
Time Perspective: Prospective

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by Medical University of Vienna:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Drusen area and volume as measured using polarization sensitive-OCT [ Time Frame: 3 years ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Visual acuity and refraction [ Time Frame: 3 years ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Choroidal blood flow [ Time Frame: 3 years ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Macular pigment optical density [ Time Frame: 3 years ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

Estimated Enrollment: 300
Study Start Date: March 2014
Estimated Study Completion Date: January 2018
Estimated Primary Completion Date: October 2017 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
300 patients with AMD


Ages Eligible for Study:   50 Years and older
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Sampling Method:   Non-Probability Sample
Study Population

300 male and female patients with age-related macular degeneration


Inclusion Criteria:

  • Men and postmenopausal women aged ≥ 50 years

    • AREDS categories 2 or 3 in at least one of the eyes
    • No ocular surgery within last 6 months

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Late form of AMD in one or two eyes (AREDS category 4)
  • Moderate or severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy, proliferative diabetic retinopathy
  • Clinically significant macular edema
  • Macular or peripheral retinal dystrophies
  • Ocular surgery other than uncomplicated cataract surgery
  • Opacity of the ocular media by cornea or lens or diseases, which could potentially influence scan quality
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT01830608

Contact: Gerhard Garhöfer, MD 00431404002981
Contact: Stefan Sacu, MD

Medical University of Vienna Not yet recruiting
Vienna, Austria, 1090
Principal Investigator: Stefan Sacu, MD         
Sponsors and Collaborators
Medical University of Vienna
  More Information

No publications provided

Responsible Party: Stefan Sacu, Ass. Prof. Priv. Doz. Dr., Medical University of Vienna Identifier: NCT01830608     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: OPHT-240912
Study First Received: April 10, 2013
Last Updated: January 2, 2014
Health Authority: Austria: Agency for Health and Food Safety

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Macular Degeneration
Eye Diseases
Retinal Degeneration
Retinal Diseases processed this record on March 03, 2015