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An Open Label Demonstration Project and Phase II Safety Study of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Use Among 15 to 17 Year Old Young Men Who Have Sex With Men (YMSM)

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT01769456
First Posted: January 16, 2013
Last Update Posted: November 10, 2017
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
Collaborator:
Gilead Sciences
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Westat
  Purpose
Approximately 100 HIV-uninfected YMSM at high risk of acquiring HIV infection, between the ages of 15 and 17 inclusive will be enrolled across all participating Adolescent Medicine Trial Units (AMTUs). Subjects will complete the behavioral intervention selected by all participating sites, Personalized Cognitive Counseling (PCC), and will then be provided with open label emtricitabine (FTC)/tenofovir (TDF) (Truvada®) as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Behavioral and biomedical data will be collected at baseline and at 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36 and 48 weeks. Any subject who becomes HIV infected during the course of the study will be discontinued from the study agent and be followed for an additional 24 weeks after the study visit at which HIV infection is confirmed. Those subjects who meet specific bone or renal criteria at the Week 48 visit or the 24-Week HIV Seropositive visit will be followed for an additional 48 weeks in the Extension Phase to monitor longer-term outcomes of potential concerns.

Condition Intervention Phase
HIV Infection Behavioral: PCC Drug: Emtricitabine/tenofovir (FTC/TDF (Truvada®)) Phase 2

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: Project PrEPare - An Open Label Demonstration Project and Phase II Safety Study of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Use Among 15 to 17 Year Old Young Men Who Have Sex With Men (YMSM) in the United States

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by Westat:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Number of Participants With Serum Creatinine Event of Grade 1 or Higher Over the Course of the Study [ Time Frame: 48 weeks ]

    This represents one of the indicators associated with the objective: Additional safety data regarding FTC/TDF (Truvada®) use among HIV-uninfected YMSM.

    Participants were assessed for any serum creatinine event of Grade 1 or higher over the course of the study (Week 0 through Week 48).


  • Lumbar Spine Bone Mineral Density: Percent Change at Week 48 From Baseline [ Time Frame: 48 weeks ]

    Percent change from baseline measurement to Week 48 measurement in lumbar spine BMD.

    This represents one of the indicators associated with the objective: Additional safety data regarding FTC/TDF (Truvada®) use among HIV-uninfected YMSM.


  • Femoral Neck Bone Mineral Density: Percent Change at Week 48 From Baseline [ Time Frame: 48 weeks ]

    Percent change from baseline measurement to Week 48 measurement in femoral neck BMD.

    This represents one of the indicators associated with the objective: Additional safety data regarding FTC/TDF (Truvada®) use among HIV-uninfected YMSM.


  • Total Body Bone Mineral Density: Percent Change at Week 48 From Baseline [ Time Frame: 48 weeks ]

    Percent change from baseline measurement to Week 48 measurement in total body BMD.

    This represents one of the indicators associated with the objective: Additional safety data regarding FTC/TDF (Truvada®) use among HIV-uninfected YMSM.


  • Total Hip Bone Mineral Density: Percent Change at Week 48 From Baseline [ Time Frame: 48 weeks ]

    Percent change from baseline measurement to Week 48 measurement in total hip BMD.

    This represents one of the indicators associated with the objective: Additional safety data regarding FTC/TDF (Truvada®) use among HIV-uninfected YMSM.


  • Number of Participants With Decrease in Bone Mineral Density [ Time Frame: 48 weeks ]

    The proportion of subjects with DXA data through Week 48 who experienced varying degrees of decrease in absolute BMD in at least one region (spine, hip, or whole body).

    This represents one of the indicators associated with the objective: Additional safety data regarding FTC/TDF (Truvada®) use among HIV-uninfected YMSM.


  • Behavioral Disinhibition/Risk Compensation: Number of Participants Reporting Unprotected Sex [ Time Frame: Week 48 ]

    Behavioral disinhibition/risk compensation was assessed based on a number of questions, including the following related to unprotected sex from the participant ACASI:

    "Of these males [male partners], how many did you have unprotected oral or anal sex with since the last time you took this survey?" An event is defined as an answer of greater than 0.

    This represents one of the indicators associated with the objective: Additional safety data regarding FTC/TDF (Truvada®) use among HIV-uninfected YMSM.


  • Behavioral Disinhibition/Risk Compensation: Number of Male Sexual Partners [ Time Frame: Week 48 ]

    Behavioral disinhibition/risk compensation was assessed based on a number of questions, including the following related to related to number of male sexual partners from the participant ACASI:

    "Since the last time you took this survey, how many male partners have you had sexual contact with (oral or anal)?"

    This represents one of the indicators associated with the objective: Additional safety data regarding FTC/TDF (Truvada®) use among HIV-uninfected YMSM.


  • Acceptability of PrEP Regimen and Study Visits [ Time Frame: Week 12 ]

    This represents one of the indicators associated with the objective: Acceptability when YMSM are provided open label FTC/TDF (Truvada®) and information regarding the safety and efficacy of PrEP from prior studies.

    Acceptability of PrEP as measured by the acceptability assessment that includes questions on usability of PrEP, user-friendliness of the medication regimen, including an assessment of side effects and delivery format, and acceptability of behavioral intervention sessions.


  • Estimation of Medication Adherence by Dried Blood Spot (DBS) Results [ Time Frame: Week 4, Week 12, Week 24, Week 36, Week 48 ]

    This outcome addresses the objective: Rates of adherence and measured levels of drug exposure when YMSM are provided open label FTC/TDF (Truvada®) and information regarding the safety and efficacy of PrEP from prior studies.

    Medication adherence is estimated by factors including levels of drug exposure as measured by DBS red blood cell (RBC) samples.

    The TFV dosing level was translated into number of dosing days per week for week 8 onwards using lab estimates as follows: '<2 days' is defined as <350 (fmol/punch), '2 days' as 350 to 700 (fmol/punch), '4 days' as >700 to 1250 (fmol/punch), and 'Daily' as >1250 (fmol/punch).

    The TFV dosing level was translated into number of dosing days for week 4 using lab estimates as follows: '<2 days' is defined as <275 (fmol/punch), '2 days' as 275 to 525 (fmol/punch), '4 days' as >525 to 950 (fmol/punch),and 'Daily' as >950 (fmol/punch)



Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Acceptability and Feasibility of Two Types of Efficacious Sexual Risk Reduction Interventions as Measured by Session Evaluation [ Time Frame: 48 weeks ]
    Study subjects were given a brief Session Evaluation Form at the end of the behavioral intervention session consisting of ten items on a 4-point response scale aimed at eliciting information about the subject's experience with the session (i.e., was session interesting, was it relevant to their life, and did they learn from the session)

  • Number of Participants Using Text Messaging Reminders [ Time Frame: Baseline through Week 48 ]
    This represents one of the indicators associated with the objective: Acceptability and feasibility of text message reminders.

  • Rating of the Reasons for Missing Medications on a 4-point Likert Scale. [ Time Frame: 48 weeks ]

    This represents one of the indicators associated with the objective: Acceptability and feasibility of text message reminders, as measured by subject rating of the reasons for missing medications on a 4-point Likert scale.

    Subjects were asked to rate various measures as "Never," "Rarely," "Sometimes," or "Often" the reason for missing taking study pills. Data shown for Week 48.

    Question: In the past month, how often have you missed taking your study pills because you:


  • Demographic and/or Behavioral Difference Between Study Groups. Behavioral Disinhibition/Risk Compensation Endpoints Will be Compared. [ Time Frame: 48 weeks ]
  • Evaluation of the Process of Protocol Implementation [ Time Frame: 48 weeks ]

    Brief phone interviews and review of written institutional review board (IRB) correspondence will be conducted for all sites whether the study is approved at that site or not. If approved, the steps needed for approval and how barriers were addressed will be examined. If the study was rejected, the reasons for disapproval, the IRB's interpretation of the risk of PrEP, and other barriers will be examined. In addition, data from a survey specific to each site's IRB's responses of minor YMSM inclusion in PrEP studies will be evaluated.

    NOTE: Data collected to address this outcome were primarily qualitative in nature, and as such are not presented here. For more information on this outcome, refer to:

    Gilbert AL, Knopf AS, Fortenberry JD, Hosek SG, Kapogiannis BG, Zimet GD. Adolescent Self-Consent for Biomedical Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention Research. J Adolesc Health. 2015 Jul;57(1):113-9.


  • Demographic and/or Behavioral Differences Between Youth Who Are Interested in Participating in a PrEP Study Versus Those Who Are Not. [ Time Frame: 48 weeks ]
    Behavioral disinhibition/risk compensation endpoints will be compared.


Enrollment: 78
Study Start Date: March 2013
Study Completion Date: November 2016
Primary Completion Date: November 2015 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: PCC Behavioral Intervention Group
PCC Behavioral Intervention combined with open label FTC/TDF (Truvada®) as PrEP
Behavioral: PCC
Personalized Cognitive Counseling (PCC) is based on the Model of Relapse Prevention and Gold's Self-Appraisal of Risk Behavior. PCC is a 1-hour, single-session, individual level intervention administered by a trained counselor in a clinic setting. Counselors ask the client to recall and describe a recent encounter of unprotected anal sex with another man of unknown or sero-discordant HIV status. The client then identifies and expresses thoughts, feelings, or attitudes that might have led to the high-risk behavior. The client and counselor examine and identify thoughts that may have led the client to decide to engage in high transmission risk sex. The client and counselor agree on strategies that can be used to deal with similar situations in the future.
Other Name: Personalized Cognitive Counseling
Drug: Emtricitabine/tenofovir (FTC/TDF (Truvada®))
All subjects will be provided with daily FTC/TDF (Truvada®) as Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for 48 weeks.
Other Names:
  • FTC/TDF
  • Truvada®
  • Emtricitabine/tenofovir
  • PrEP

Detailed Description:
The aims of the study are to obtain additional data on the safety of FTC/TDF (Truvada®) and to evaluate acceptability, patterns of use, rates of adherence, and measured levels of drug exposure when YMSM are provided with open label FTC/TDF (Truvada®) and information regarding safety and efficacy of FTC/TDF (Truvada®) as PrEP based on prior studies in adults. The study will also examine patterns of sexual risk behavior among HIV-uninfected YMSM in the U.S. at high risk of acquiring HIV infection who are provided with open label FTC/TDF (Truvada®) as PrEP. The study will also explore the feasibility and acceptability of implementing an efficacious risk reduction behavioral intervention prior to the provision of PrEP- PCC. The inclusion of a behavioral intervention in this project not only addresses the ethical responsibility of providing at least the minimum risk reduction education to all subjects given the high HIV risk of the study population, but also builds behavioral skills to assist subjects in reducing their risk when not taking PrEP. Furthermore, the study will evaluate the process of protocol implementation to better understand how to best implement PrEP research and program practice at adolescent medicine sites, including an evaluation of consent procedures and the acceptability/feasibility of allowing youth minors to consent for their own participation in HIV prevention intervention, to the extent allowable by local laws and regulations, and to allow youth minor participation in a clinical trial without requiring disclosure of their sexual orientation and risk behaviors to their parents or legal guardians.
  Eligibility

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.


Ages Eligible for Study:   15 Years to 17 Years   (Child)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Male
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Willing and able to provide written informed consent;
  • Male gender at birth;
  • Age 15 years and 0 days through 17 years and 364 days, inclusive, at the time of signed informed consent;
  • Self reports evidence of high risk for acquiring HIV infection including at least one of the following:

    • At least one episode of unprotected anal intercourse with an HIV-infected male partner or a male partner of unknown HIV status during the last 6 months;
    • Anal intercourse with 3 or more male sex partners during the last 6 months;
    • Exchange of money, gifts, shelter, or drugs for anal sex with a male partner during the last 6 months;
    • Sex with a male partner and has had a sexually transmitted infection (STI) during the last 6 months or at screening;
    • Sexual partner of an HIV-infected man with whom condoms were not consistently used in the last 6 months; or
    • At least one episode of anal intercourse where the condom broke or slipped off during the last 6 months;
  • Tests HIV antibody negative at time of screening;
  • Willing to provide locator information to study staff;
  • Willing to take PrEP;
  • Willing to participate in behavioral intervention;
  • Reports intention not to relocate out of AMTU study area during the course of the study; and
  • Does not have a job or other obligations that would require long absences from AMTU study area (greater than 4 weeks at a time).

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Appears visibly distraught or presence of active serious psychiatric symptoms (e.g., active hallucinations, suicidal, homicidal, or exhibiting violent behavior) at the time of consent;
  • Intoxicated or under the influence of alcohol or other drugs at the time of consent;
  • Any significant uncontrolled, active or chronic disease process that, in the judgment of the site investigator, would make participation in the study inappropriate. (Appropriately managed conditions, like well-controlled diabetes, would not preclude enrollment; the site is encouraged to contact the Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions (ATN) 113 Protocol Team if they are having difficulty making the judgment.);
  • History of bone fractures not explained by trauma;
  • Acute or chronic hepatitis B infection as indicated by positive hepatitis B surface antigen (sAg) test at time of screening;
  • Confirmed renal dysfunction (Creatinine Clearance (CrCl) < 75 ml/min calculated based on bedside Schwartz formula: Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) = (0.413 x (height in centimeters)) / (serum creatinine in mg/dl)), or serum creatinine > upper limit of normal (ULN), or history of renal parenchymal disease or presence of only one kidney at time of screening;
  • Confirmed ≥ Grade 2 hypophosphatemia at time of screening;
  • Confirmed ≥ Grade 2 hematologic system abnormality (White Blood Count (WBC), Absolute Neutrophil Count (ANC), hemoglobin, or platelets) at time of screening;
  • Confirmed ≥ Grade 2 hepatobiliary system abnormality (Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), or bilirubin) at time of screening;
  • Confirmed proteinuria as indicated by urine dipstick result ≥ 1+ at time of screening, regardless of urine protein to creatinine ratio (UP/C);
  • UP/C > 0.37 g/g at time of screening, regardless of urine dipstick protein result;
  • Confirmed normoglycemic glucosuria as indicated by urine dipstick result ≥ 1+ in the presence of normal serum glucose (<120 mg/dL) at time of screening;
  • A confirmed Grade ≥ 3 toxicity on any screening evaluations;
  • Known allergy/sensitivity to the study agent or its components;
  • Concurrent participation in an HIV vaccine study or other investigational drug study, including oral or topical PrEP (microbicide) studies;
  • Use of disallowed medications; or
  • Inability to understand spoken English.
  Contacts and Locations
Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT01769456


Locations
United States, California
Children's Hospital of Los Angeles
Los Angeles, California, United States, 90027
United States, Colorado
University of Colorado - The Children's Hospital of Denver
Aurora, Colorado, United States, 80045
United States, Illinois
Stroger Hospital of Cook County
Chicago, Illinois, United States, 60612
United States, Louisiana
Tulane Medical Center
New Orleans, Louisiana, United States, 70112
United States, Massachusetts
Fenway Institute
Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02215
United States, Pennsylvania
Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 19104
Sponsors and Collaborators
Westat
Gilead Sciences
Investigators
Study Chair: Sybil Hosek, PhD Stroger Hospital of Cook County
  More Information

Additional Information:
Publications:
Responsible Party: Westat
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01769456     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: ATN 113 Version 2.0
First Submitted: January 14, 2013
First Posted: January 16, 2013
Results First Submitted: October 6, 2017
Results First Posted: November 10, 2017
Last Update Posted: November 10, 2017
Last Verified: November 2017

Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: Yes
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No

Keywords provided by Westat:
HIV, PrEP, FTC/TDF, Truvada®

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
HIV Infections
Lentivirus Infections
Retroviridae Infections
RNA Virus Infections
Virus Diseases
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes
Immune System Diseases
Tenofovir
Emtricitabine
Emtricitabine, Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Drug Combination
Antiviral Agents
Anti-Infective Agents
Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors
Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Anti-Retroviral Agents
Anti-HIV Agents